Non-native species naturalized in Texas: Reported since 1970

 

Non-native species naturalized in Texas are tracked here in literature to record those reported as new for the state after the 1970 publication of Correll & Johnston’s Manual (species from the Manual also are being added, but slowly).  In some cases, a species is listed to exclude it from the Texas flora or to discuss its nativity.  For each species, the literature reference is provided, with reported Texas counties and other brief notes, as appropriate or as known.  The species are listed alphabetically by family, genus, and species. 

 

A number of species have been reported without documentation by Johnston (1990), Hatch et al. (1990), Jones et al. (1997), and Turner et al. (2003).  For examples, see Poaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae below.  Vouchers or other documentation for these will be added, as time and resources allow.  These species are marked in the list below with “%”

 

Correll, D.S. and M.C. Johnston.  1970.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas.  Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 

Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, and L.E. Brown.  1990.  Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas.  MP-1665, Texas Agric. Expt. Station, Texas A&M Univ., College Station. 

Johnston, M.C.  1990.  The vascular plants of Texas: A list, up-dating the ‘Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas.’  Second edition.  Published by the author. 

Turner, B.L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, and O. Doron.  2003.  Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Vol. I––Dicots; Vol. II––Monocots.  Sida, Bot. Misc. 24, 1 and 2. 

 

First reports for Texas of Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, and Kalanchloe daigremontiana, and critical documentation for Leucaena leucocephala, Lonicera fragrantissima, and Lonicera maackii have recently been made by the citizen scientists (as noted below) for the Invaders of Texas Database.  The Invaders of Texas Database also provides a huge amount of interesting and useful information on many other species. 

 

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Allan R. Berger, Walter Berry, Cathy Brock, Frankie Fox, Ruth Hoese, Kris Kirkwood, Richard Klopshinske, Mary Grace Lopez, Victor Madamba, Joe Marcus, Gary Martin, Matthew Mortimer, Paula Parson, Karan Rawlins, Elizabeth Rodriguez, Marilyn Sallee, and Jim Shouse.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/>  See individual taxa for specific references. 

 

Last update: 3 Feb 2011  [see comments on Tradescantia fluminensis, Saccharum ravennae; Liriope and Ophiopogon; Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita], Verbena, Buddleja

 

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ACANTHACEAE

* Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson

Angerstein, M.B. and D.E. Lemke.  1994.  First records of the aquatic weed Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae) from Texas.  Sida 16: 365–371.    

Comal and Hays cos., in the Comal and San Marcos rivers.  “We surmise that H. polysperma was introduced into Texas river systems either directly through cultivation by local aquatic plant nurseries … or indirectly through careless dumping by aquarists.” 

Comment from James Van Kley, 2 Oct 2009

“…  unfortunately Hygrophila is already deeply entrenched and very abundant/ widespread at Caddo Lake and would be very difficult to eradicate from there.  I'm afraid it's here to stay.” 

 

* Nomaphila stricta (Vahl) Nees 

Ramamoorthy, T.P. and B.L. Turner.  1992.  Nomaphila stricta (Acanthaceae), a newly discerned aquatic weed in Texas, and the first report for North America.  Sida 15: 115–117.

Val Verde Co.  Speculated to have been introduced into San Felipe Springs as someone released minnows or goldfish. 

 

AGAVACEAE  

* Agave weberi Cels ex Poisson  

        Noted by Correll & Johnston (1970, p. 421) as “known only in cultivation, cultivated along Route 83,” in Webb Co.

 

ALOACEAE

* Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Found semi-wild in extreme southern Texas”

 

AMARANTHACEAE

* Alternanthera caracasana Kunth

As noted by Diggs et al. (2000), this species has been regarded as a North American native, but Henrickson (1993) indicated that it is native to Central America and South America. 

Henrickson, J.  1993.  Amaranthaceae.  In J.C. Hickman (ed.).  The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California.  Univ. of California, Berkeley.

 

* Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Liberty Co.

 

AMARYLLIDACEAE

* Amaryllis belladona L.

        Not included in the formal Manual treatment but noted by C&J (1970, p. 413) as “abundantly spread in and along a slough on the west edge of Edna in Jackson County, where it is well-established.” 

 

* Habranthus tubispathus (L’Her.) Traub

Holmes, W.C. and C.J. Wells.  1980.  The distribution of Habranthus tubispathus (L' Hér.) Traub in South America and North America—Texas and Louisiana.  Sida. 8: 328–333. 

21 counties

       The species occurs in southeast Texas and northwestern Louisiana, where it grows in “disturbed places of low, usually grassy vegetation (lawns, roadsides, railroads, etc.).”  It “is very abundant in west-central Louisiana only in the areas settled or developed at the same time Texas was being settled by the Spanish.”  It previously was considered to be a native species (as H. texensis (Herbert) Steud., but the main area of distribution of the species is Argentina, Brazil, central and southern Chile, and southern Uruguay.  Holmes and Wells hypothesized that the long-disjunct North American plants were introduced in late 17th or early 18th century by Spanish missionaries. 

 

* Leucojum aestivum L.

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Notes on Leucojum and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) naturalized in Texas.  Phytoneuron 2010-9: 1–6.  

Harrison Co.  A large population along Interstate Highway 20 southeast of Marshall.  The plants are seed-sterile. 

 

* Narcissus species

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Notes on Leucojum and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) naturalized in Texas.  Phytoneuron 2010-9: 1–6.  

        Narcissus ×intermedius Loisel is vouchered from large populations along I-20 in Harrison and Gregg cos., N. jonquilla L. from a large I-20 population in Van Zandt Co., and N. ×odorus L. from an I-20 population in Gregg Co.  Color photos further document the observations and additional collections are cited for each of the taxa.  Texas collections of plants outside of cultivation also are cited for N. papyraceus Ker-Gawl., N. pseudonarcissus L., and N. tazetta L.  Narcissus jonquilla produces fertile seeds, but the two Narcissus hybrids are seed-sterile, remarkable especially in view of the abundance of N. ×intermedius.   

 

ANACARDIACEAE

* Schinus longifolius (Lindl.) Speg. & Girola

Schinus longifolius was included in the Correll & Johnston Manual (1970), with the comment that it was “Introd. into s. Tex. as an ornamental, and apparently naturalized in several localities.”  In preparation of the FNA treatment of Anacardiaceae, Susan Pell and John Mitchell have been unable to find a voucher documenting its presence in the state.  Tom Patterson (email, 7 Jan 2010) provides the interesting and illuminating commentary below regarding the status of Schinus species in Texas -- resulting in the elimination of S. longifolius as a member of the Texas flora. 

In Barkley’s 1943 treatment of Anacardiaceae in Lundell's Flora of Texas, there are specimen citations for each of the native species.  There are no citations for Schinus longifolius and S. molle.  In his species account of S. longifolius, he wrote "Introd. into Texas as an ornamental, and apparently naturalized."  [The “s.” in “s. Texas” and also “in several localities” was added in the subsequent description in Correll and Johnston]. 

In 1944, Barkley published a monograph of Schinus (Brittonia 5: 160–198).  In his treatment of S. longifolius, he cited only one specimen from Texas: "TEXAS (cultivated): HARRIS: Teas' Nursery, Houston, April 16, 1928,  Palmer 33358 (AA-Harv, ANSP, MBG)."  Based on this information, S. longifolius should not be included in the Texas flora. Apparently Barkley had a broad concept of "naturalized" - a cultivated plant with a voucher.

                                                                                                                           In South Texas, Schinus terebinthifolius has escaped cultivation in the Corpus Christi area and the Brownsville area.  Schinus molle has escaped cultivation in the Laredo area. 

 

* Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

Lemke, D.E.  1992.  Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) in Texas.  Phytologia 72: 42–44. 

Cameron, Hidalgo cos.; “sporadically collected over the past 45 years from Cameron and Hidalgo counties, where it occurs both in cultivation and naturalized along the banks of several resacas.” 

 

* Pistacia chinensis Bunge

McWilliams, E.  1991.  The impending naturalization of Pistacia chinensis (Anacardiaceae) in East Texas.  Sida 14: 508–509.

Brazos Co.  “By 1928, it became recognized that P. chinensis was well adapted [around the nursery of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in College Station].”  The species is now naturalized and “young trees ranging in age from a few years to about 20 years can be found in disturbed Post Oak woodlands in central Brazos Co.” 

 

APIACEAE

* Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. 

Lipscomb, B.L. and G.M. Diggs, Jr.  2005.  Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (Apiaceae) new for Texas and notes on introduced species.  Sida 21: 2449–2456. 

Dallas Co.

 

*Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.

Mathias, M.E. and L. Constance.  1944.  Torilis (Umbelliferae).  N. Amer. Fl. 28B, Part 1: 110–111.  

Mathias and Constance (1944) included “Texas” in their statement of range for the species, and that has been the basis for its inclusion in accounts of the Texas flora (i.e., PLANTS Database).  In the SMU collection are 5 collections annotated in 1949 by Mathias & Constance as Torilis japonica, but none of these plants differs in any perceptible way from T. arvensis and all 5 of them were annotated by L.E. Shinners in 1965 as T. arvensis: Lampasas Co.––Whitehouse 15370; San Saba Co. ––Correll & Correll 12683; Tarrant Co. ––Whitehouse 16088; Travis Co. ––Whitehouse 11312, Tharp s.n.   Torilis japonica is excluded as an element of the Texas flora. 

 

APOCYNACEAE

* Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC.

Singhurst, J.R. and W.C. Holmes.  2010.  Carissa macrocarpa (Apocynaceae ): New to the Texas flora.  Phytoneuron 2010-19: 1–3. 

Nueces Co.  Shell middens in Padre Balli Park (Nueces County park lands), north end of Padre Island, 17 May 2010

 

* Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Hill, S.R.  1982.  Distributional and nomenclatural notes on the flora of the Texas coastal bend.  Sida 9: 309–326. 

Refugio Co., “persists occasionally at old house sites” 

 

ARACEAE

* Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

Arridge, R.E. and P.J. Fonteyn.  1981.  Naturalization of Colocasia esculenta (Araceae) in the San Marcos River, Texas.  Southw. Nat. 26: 210–211.  

Dense stands of this species grow on the banks of the Blanco, Colorado, and Guadalupe, and San Marcos rivers. 

        This species is currently recorded from 8 counties (fide Turner et al. 2003; TEX database).  Jackie Poole (pers. comm., July 2009) notes that it is “under-represented in herbaria. It’s at Lost Maples in Bandera County, and I don’t doubt that it’s in many other Hill Country streams as well.”  It also is naturalized in ditch-like drainages in Trinity Park and along banks of the Trinity River within the city of Fort Worth (Nesom, pers. observ.).   The Invaders of Texas database and EDD Map show the species in 11 counties: Bexar, Brazoria, Guadalupe, Hardin, Harris, Hays, Liberty, Montgomery, Tarrant, Travis, and Valverde. 

 

* Cryptocoryne beckettii Thwaites ex Trimen  

Rosen, D.J.  2000.  Cryptocoryne beckettii (Araceae), a new aquatic plant in Texas.  Sida 19: 399–401.  

Hays Co.

 

* Pistia stratioides L.

Included in the 1970 Texas Flora.  Vouchered at TEX for 7 counties, but shown by Howard (2009) to occur in 10 discrete Texas drainage systems, clearly in at least 10 counties. 

Howard, V.  2009.  Pistia stratiotes.  USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
<http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=1099.>  Revision Date: 3/14/2008

 

* Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Lemke, D.E. and E.L. Schneider.  1988.  Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Araceae) new to Texas.  Southw. Nat. 33: 498–499. 

San Marcos River in Hays Co., growing with Colocasia esculenta; Guadalupe River near Seguin in Guadalupe Co.  “Despite a superficial resemblance and their occurrence in close association with one another, C. esculenta and X. sagittifolium can be easily distinguished.  The leaves of C. esculenta are peltate with a velvety sheen on the upper surface and have a purplish spot on the upper epidermis opposite the insertion of the petiole, while those of X. sagittifolium are not peltate and have a lustrous green upper surface lacking the purplish centrum.  The inflorescences of C. esculenta, which appear abundantly in our area in late summer and fall, have a bright yellow spathe; although we have not observed X. sagittifolium in flower, its spathe is reported to be creamy white (Godfrey and Wooten, 1979).” 

 

ASCLEPIACEAE

Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb. ex R. Br.) R. Br.

Patterson, T.F. and G.L. Nesom.  2009.  Cryptostegia grandiflora (Asclepiadaceae), a new non-native weed for Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 461–463.  

Starr Co.  Two localities along the Rio Grande; it is abundant at both sites and often densely covers entire trees.  This species has been described by the Australian Invasive Species Council as “arguably Australia's worst weed.” 

 

ASTERACEAE

* Arctium minus Bernh.

Hulten, E. and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 

         Hultén and Fries (1986, Vol. 2, Map 1853) mapped the species for Texas, at the southern extremity of its adventive range in North America, placing a dot near the center of the state.  Its occurrence in Texas may be expected, as it is documented to occur in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana (PLANTS Database), but no voucher or other documentation has been located for its occurrence in Texas (Keil 2006 - Arctium in FNA) and the species is excluded from the current account of Texas plants. 

 

* Carduus acanthoides L.

Jones, S.D., J.K. Wipff, and P.M. Montgomery.  1997.  Vascular plants of Texas: A comprehensive checklist including synonymy, bibliography, and index.

         Listed by Jones et al. (1997); mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for Collin and Schleicher counties. Vouchers are at TEX. 

         Collin Co.: Farm Rd 981just E of jct with Hwy 78, bottomland forest, 13 May 1992, Saunders 3418 (TEX).  Schleicher Co.: Westernmost portion of Eldorado, weed along Hwy 190, 8 Jun 2001, Turner 21-770 (TEX).

 

* Carduus pycnocephalus L.

        Identification and taxonomy of Carduus pycnocephalus must be considered in conjunction with that of the very similar C. tenuiflorus Curtis.  Cory (1940) collected plants of C. pycnocephalus in Sutton Co. in 1939, in pastures and fields growing with plants of Silybum marianum and Carduus nutans, all three of which apparently arrived there in a shipment of hay from California.  In a later collection from Sutton Co. (Cory 53662, 5 May 1947, SMU), he had changed the identification to C. tenuiflorus.  Carduus tenuiflorus, as it has been subsequently identified in Texas, now has spread over a large region of central Texas (Turner et al. 2003). 

        Dunn (1976) identified the Texas plants as Carduus pycnocephalus, and Keil (2006, Carduus in FNA) included Texas among the states in the known range of C. pycnocephalus (“Aggressive weed of waste ground, rangelands, pastures, roadsides, fields; Ala., Ark., Calif., Idaho, Miss., N.Y., Oreg., Pa., S.C., Tex.”).  He including only California and Oregon in the North American range of C. tenuiflorus, noting that it has been reported from New Jersey, Texas, and Washington but that he had not seen specimens from those states. 

        Comments on the subtle and quantitative distinctions between Carduus pycnocephalus and C. tenuiflorus were provided by Keil.  He also noted that “Published chromosome counts (2n = 18, 31, 32, 54, 60, 64, 80) for C. pycnocephalus from a variety of Old World localities indicate that this is a complex species in need of further investigation.    The two species sometimes grow in mixed populations and at times appear to intergrade.  Hybridization has been reported in Europe … and is suspected to occur in California.”  The two also have been treated as conspecific, the younger name becoming C. pycnocephalus L. var. tenuiflorus (Curtis) Fiori.  

        It seems clear that only a single evolutionary entity is represented among the Texas plants, whether from the initial introduction in Sutton Co. or from multiple introductions.  The morphology and variability in Texas are similar to that characteristic of California plants of Carduus pycnocephalus as well as all or almost all California collections at BRIT and TEX identified as C. tenuiflorus.  The Texas plants are more appropriately and consistently identified as Carduus pycnocephalus rather than C. tenuiflorus. 

 

Dunn, P.H.  1976.  Distribution of Carduus nutans, Carduus acanthoides, Carduus pycnocephalus, and Carduus crispus in the USA.  Weed Sci. 24: 518–24.

 

* Carthamus lanatus L.  Distaff Thistle

Abstract (Invasive Species Conference, 2005): DISTAFF THISTLE: AN EXAMPLE OF AN INVASIVE ANNUAL PLANT ON TEXAS RANGELANDS. Barron S. Rector, Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A&M University, College Station

http://www.texasinvasives.org/conference/abstract_detail.php?abstract_id=45

“Distaff thistle is an introduced, overwintering annual from the Mediterranean region.  It is presently found on a variety of disturbed rangelands in 26 Texas counties.” 

         Carthamus lanatus L. is vouchered in Texas from Gillespie, McCulloch, Kimble, Schleicher, and Coryell counties (collections at BRIT, TEX), and Llano, Menard, and Tom Green counties (as additionally mapped by Turner et al. 2003), where it has been found in pastures and gravel pits and along roadsides. 

 

* Carthamus tinctorius L.   Safflower

         Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for Brazos and Tarrant counties, evidently based on the following collections. 

         Brazos Co.: College Station, 8 Apr 2006, Reed & Reed 3086 (TAMU).  Ellis Co.: Waxahatchie, in yard near a house along FM 55, not in vicinity of a bird feeder, ca. 7 plants in area 15 feet long, 11 Jun 2002, Hill et al. s.n. (BRIT).  Tarrant Co.: Fort Worth, weed in yard, probably from bird seed, 19 Jun 1996, Sylvester 2414 (BRIT). 

 

* Centaurea solstitialis L.  Yellow star thistle

        Texas Invaders database shows records for Burnet, Kimble, and Tarrant counties.  Vouchers at TEX are from Dallas and Guadalupe counties. Shown on the EDDS map for 31 Texas counties. 

        Moved in May 2010 from the Expected List to known occurrences for Texas (thanks to Brooke Byerley for the notice).  Yellow star thistle invades woodlands, pastures, roadsides, and fields––a horrible weed expected soon to occur in all regions of Texas.  Native to Africa, Eurasia, Mediterranean Europe and northern Africa.  Introduced to NA as a contaminant of alfalfa seed. 

 

* Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore

O’Kennon, R.J. and G.L. Nesom.  1988.  First report of Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae) from Texas.  Sida 13: 115–116.

Gillespie Co.; vouchered at TEX in 2009 from Bandera, Bexar, Brazoria, Galveston, Gillespie, Hays, Kendall, and Kerr counties. 

 

* Cnicus benedictus L.

Jones, S.D., J.K. Wipff, and P.M. Montgomery.  1997.  Vascular plants of Texas: A comprehensive checklist including synonymy, bibliography, and index.   

         Listed by Jones et al. (1997); included in the Texas distribution by Keil and Ochsmann (2006), apparently on the basis of the Jones et al. listing: “Roadsides, fields, waste places, sometimes cultivated; N.B., N.S., Ont.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Conn., Fla., Ga., Ill., Md., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Oreg., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Wash., Wis.”   The Texas record apparently is based on the following:

Callahan Co.: “grown in a pot from a wheat field,” Mar 1993, J. Landers s.n. (TAES).  The plant apparently was grown to identify a weed submitted for identification.  Thanks to Steve Hatch for the voucher information. 

 

* Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f.

         Recorded by Johnston (1990) based on plants from the Texas A&M campus, as documented here by collections at TEX; the report by Hatch et al. (1990) probably based on the same or similar collections.

        Brazos Co.: College Station, campus of A&M University, lawn weed with Soliva, 27 Apr 1970, Correll & Correll 38493 (LL, TEX); Texas A&M University campus, an Australian weed widely adventive in W hemisphere, the first population known in Texas, 23 Apr 1970, Johnston s.n. (TEX). 

 

* Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Harris, Polk cos.  “Plants of this species rarely persist for more than one growing season but are often re-seeded for roadside beautification.” 

 

* Crepis zacintha (L.) Babcock

Gandhi, K.N. and L.E. Brown.  1993.  Crepis zacintha (Asteraceae), adventive in Texas, and the first record in North America.  Sida 15: 547–550.

Waller Co. 

 

* Crepis setosa Hall. f. 

Hanesworth, V.  1993.  Crepis setosa (Asteraceae) a newly established introductant in central Texas.  Sida 15: 657–658.  

Travis Co. 

 

* Dimorphotheca sinuata DC.   Glandular cape-marigold

Keith, E.L.  2004.  Dimorphotheca sinuata and Zinnia violacea (Asteraceae), two escaped cultivars new to Texas.  Phytologia 86: 29–31. 

Walker Co.; “Approximately a dozen plants were found blooming [19 Feb 2002] … along a recently constructed roadside with black clayey soil.  These plants may be the result of direct seeding or contaminants in grass seeds; however, several plants were present at the same location in spring 2002. 

 

* Emilia fosbergii Nicolson  

Williams, J.K.  1994.  Emilia fosbergii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new introduction to Texas.  Sida 16: 378–379.  Spencer, W.P.  2005.  Emilia fosbergii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) in Texas revisited.  Sida 21: 1937–1938. 

Travis, Walker cos.

 

* Gamochaeta antillana (Urb.) Anderb. 

Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New distribution records for Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in the United States.  Sida 21: 1175–1186.  Nesom, G.L.  2007.  Distribution of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1125–1130. 

Many counties.  (vs. Gamochaeta falcata (Lam.) Cabrera)

 

* Gamochaeta argyrinea Nesom

Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New species of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) from the eastern United States and comments on similar species.  Sida 21: 717–742.   Nesom, G.L.  2007.  Distribution of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1125–1130. 

Abundant in many counties in east Texas.

 

* Gamochaeta calviceps (Fern.) Cabrera  

Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New distribution records for Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in the United States.  Sida 21: 1175–1186.  Nesom, G.L.  2007.  Distribution of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1125–1130. 

Many counties.  (vs. Gamochaeta falcata (Lam.) Cabrera)

 

* Gamochaeta coarctata (Willd.) Kerg.

Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New species of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) from the eastern United States and comments on similar species.  Sida 21: 717–742.  Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New distribution records for Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in the United States.  Sida 21: 1175–1186.  Nesom, G.L.  2007.  Distribution of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1125–1130.  Pruski, J. and G.L. Nesom.  2004.  Gamochaeta coarctata, the correct name for Gamochaeta spicata (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).  Sida 21: 711–716. 

Many counties.  (vs. Gamochaeta americana (P. Miller) Wedd., which is not known to occur north of Mexico)

 

* Gamochaeta pensylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera

Nesom, G.L.  2004.  New species of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) from the eastern United States and comments on similar species.  Nesom, G.L.  2007.  Distribution of Gamochaeta (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1125–1130.  

The nativity of Gamochaeta pensylvanica is ambiguous, but it is likely that it was early introduced to North America.  At least it appears to be non-native and invasive in Texas. 

 

* Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Hook. & Arn.  var. tweedei (Hook. & Arn.) Baker

Tomb, S.  1974.  Hypochaeris in Texas.  Sida 5: 287–289. 

Anderson Co., disturbed roadside on SE edge of Palestine

 

* Hypochaeris glabra L.

Diggs, G.M. Jr., R. J. O’Kennon, and B.L. Lipscomb.  1997.  Hypochaeris glabra (Asteraceae), a new record for Texas.  Sida 17: 633–634.  Williamson Co.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Harris, Leon, Waller cos. 

Add Brazos, Burleson cos., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009

 

* Hypochaeris radicata L.

Correll, D.S.  1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.  Confirmed by Tomb, S.  1974.  Hypochaeris in Texas.  Sida 5: 287–289. 

Newton Co., edge of woods 3 mi S of Burkeville

 

* Lactuca saligna L.

O'Kennon, R.J., G.M. Diggs, Jr., and B.L. Lipscomb.  1998.  Lactuca saligna (Asteraceae), a lettuce new for Texas.  Sida 18: 615–619. 

Tarrant Co.

 

* Lapsana communis L.

O'Kennon, R.J., T.M. Barkley, G.M. Diggs, Jr., and B.L. Lipscomb.  1999.  Lapsana communis (Asteraceae) new for Texas and notes on invasive exotics.  Sida 18:1277–1283. 

Tarrant Co.

 

* Leontodon hispidus L.

Included for Texas by the “Texas A&M Bioinformatics Workin Group” website (fide PLANTS), without documentation. 

         Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for Panola Co.  An apparently corresponding voucher at TEX is from adjacent Harrison Co.: Marshall, SE corner of yard at Grover Hall, East Texas Baptist College, 16 Jun 1983, Fleetwood 6 (TEX).   

 

* Leontodon saxatilis Lam.  (synonym = Leontodon taraxacoides (Vill.) Mérat) 

Leontodon taraxacoides (Villars) Willdenow ex Mérat de Vaumartoise (1831), long used for this species, is a later homonym of L. taraxacoides Hoppe & Hornschuch (1821).    Leontodon saxatilis is widely introduced in North America.  It is identified by heads borne singly, ebracteate peduncles, glabrous or hairy leaves, and mixed pappi.  Some individuals are coarsely hirsute and easily confused with L. hispidus” (D.J. Bogler, in FNANM, Vol. 19: 294–296, 2006).  Thanks to John Strother for pointing out that L. taraxacoides is a later homonym, giving way to the use of L. saxatilis.

Vuilleumier, B.S.  1973.  The genera of Lactuceae (Compositae) in the southeastern United States.  J. Arnold Arb. 54: 42–93.

         Vuilleumier (1973) included “Texas” in the statement of range for Leontodon taraxacoides; mapped by Turner et al. (2003) from El Paso Co. (as Leontodontaraxacum”).  A voucher at TEX is from El Paso Co.: El Paso, 7400 block of N Mesa, in watered lawn, 12 Aug 1993, Worthington 22279 (TEX). 

 

* Logfia arvensis (L.) Holub

Identified and treated in the Manual (1970) as Stylocline micropoides Gray, according to Johnston (1990). 

El Paso Co.  “Rare at El Paso.”

         This species has been included by the PLANTS Database (USDA, NRCS 2009) in the Texas flora based on Johnston (1990).  Johnston, however, noted only that his description of Stylocline micropoides Gray in the Texas Manual (Correll & Johnston 1970) was “wholly inappropriate, [and] instead applies to Logfia arvensis.”  The real Stylocline micropoides, which is a native species, is vouchered from El Paso.  El Paso Co.: NW part of El Paso at small andesite hills 0.3 mi. N of jct Belvedere w/ Westwind, 4200 ft., mostly a creosote bush community with several substrate types and arroyos, 29 Apr 1983, Worthington 10130 (TEX, UTEP).  The real Logfia arvensis has not been observed in Texas (Worthington 1989, 1997), and the species is excluded from the current account of Texas plants.

 

* Madia elegans D. Don ex Lindl. 

         Turner et al. (2003) mapped the species for Grimes County, evidently based on early collections from Plantersville, a town whose population has fluctuated around 200 since about 1900.  The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway runs through the town and might have been a source of the seeds, but the label data do not indicate that the plants were naturalized or waifed in Plantersville.  It seems most likely that they were garden collections.  Madia elegans has not been reported as naturalized from anywhere else outside its native range in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, and the species is excluded from the current account of Texas plants. 

         Grimes Co.: Plantersville, Fall 1927, Bletsch 42-77 (TEX); Plantersville, Fall 1927, Bletsch s.n. (TEX). 

 

* Matricaria courrantiana DC.

Kearney, T.H. and R.H. Peebles.  1960.  The Flora of Arizona. 

         Kearney and Peebles (1960, p. 937) included “Texas” in the description of geographic range for the species, and Arizona and Texas remain the only two states recorded for the occurrence of this species in the USA (fide PLANTS).  Although the statement by Kearney and Peebles surely was based on an actual observation, until a voucher for the Texas record can be located, the species is excluded from the current account of Texas plants. 

 

* Matricaria recutita L. 

Hulten, E. and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer.

Vouchers at TEX from Gonzales, Starr, and Webb cos. 

 

* Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & Burtt  

Nesom, G.L.  2001.  New records in Pseudognaphalium (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae) for the United States.  Sida 19: 1185–1190.  Kimble Co., El Paso Co., Parker Co. 

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264.  Liberty Co.

 

* Sanvitalia angustifolia A. Gray

M.C. Johnston (1990), with the following comment:  “Found once in the campgrounds of the Chisos Mountains basin, perhaps waifed through automobile dispersal from its native home in Mexico.” 

Brewster Co.: Big Bend National Park, Chisos Mts. Basin Campground, at the first campsite on the rt. after the paypost, only two plants seen, 13 Oct 1978, Henrickson & Bontemps 12444 (TEX). 

 

* Sanvitalia procumbens Lam.

Strother, J. L.  1979.  Extradition of Sanvitalia tenuis to Zinnia (Compositae-Heliantheae).  Madroño 26: 173–179.

         Noted by Strother (1979) to occur “in trans-Pecos Texas in Chisos Basin (J. Henrickson pers. comm.),” with further comment (Strother FNANM 2006, p. 71): “Sanvitalia procumbens has been seen only sporadically in the flora; it probably is not a resident.”  Strother (pers. comm.) comments that for the FNANM treatment, he “saw no supporting specimen(s) for Sanvitalia procumbens from California or Texas,” and it is probable that Henrickson’s communication was intended to refer to S. angustifolia.  Sanvitalia procumbens is excluded from the current account of Texas plants. 

 

* Scorzonera laciniata L.

         Recorded by Johnston (1990) to occur in Randall Co., without other documentation.  Collections of the species have been made from three Panhandle counties. 

       Hutchinson Co.: LAMR, Harbor Bay area, directly W of Fritch on Harbor Bay road, roadside and steep red-sandy slopes with dolomite boulders from caprock, 3190 ft, 22 Apr 2002, Nesom & O’Kennon LAMR 16 (BRIT); LAMR, lawn and roadside of NPS Ranger Station, just W of Sanford-Yake road on short spur, near jct of High Plains Road, 25 Apr 2002, Nesom & O’Kennon LAMR110 (BRIT); W side of Borger along Hwy 136, grassy areas bordering Wal-Mart parking lot, 28 May 2002, Nesom & O’Kennon LAMR243 (BRIT).  Lubbock Co.: Canyon Rd, lower slopes and along the bottom of a “lone profile” canyon, 9 Apr 1990, Rose s.n. (LL).  Randall Co.: Camp Don Herrington Boy Scout Camp on Palo Duro Creek, mixed shrub-grassland community, 24 Apr 1985, Higgins 15271 (TEX); Canyon, E side of town on vacant lot, 29 May 1988, Worthington 16584 (TEX). 

 

* Senecio vulgaris L.

Lipscomb, B.  1978.  Additions to the Texas flora.  Sida 7: 392–394.  

Dallas Co., Wichita Co.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Harris Co., sidewalk weed

Add Brazos, Medina cos., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009; ubiquitous in Tarrant Co., pers. observ. Nesom

 

* Solivia anthemifolia (Juss.) Sweet
        
Turner et al. (2003) mapped Soliva anthemifolia for Bastrop Co. and Leon Co., separately from “Soliva mutisii,” which is shown with a considerably broader range.  Soliva mutisii Kunth, however, is a synonym for S. anthemifolia (Watson 2006), and in the Flora of Texas Database (http://www.biosci.utexas.edu/prc/Tex.html), identifications of TEX/LL vouchers for these records have been corrected to S. stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet and S. anthemifolia (Juss.) Sweet, respectively.  Nueces Co. is added to the two other counties for the distribution of S. stolonifera.  Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pavón (= S. pterosperma [Juss.] Less.) also is commonly and widely naturalized in east Texas.     

 

* Sonchus arvensis L.

         Hatch et al. (1990) noted that a previous claim that this species occurs in Texas has not been confirmed.  Jones et al. (1997) included it in their checklist, but no voucher has been located and Texas was not included in the range of the species in the FNANM treatment (Hyatt 2006).  The species is excluded from the current account of Texas plants. 

 

* Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Cherokee Co.

 

* Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) Nesom  Beach Aster

Nesom, G.L.  2005.  Taxonomy of the Symphyotrichum (Aster) subulatum group and Symphyotrichum (Aster) tenuifolium (Asteraceae: Astereae).  Sida 21:2125–2140.

Galveston Co.

 

* Tagetes erecta

Keith, E.L.  2004.  Tagetes erecta (Asteraceae), a new escape to the flora of Texas.  Phytologia 86: 104–106. 

Walker Co.

 

* Tridax procumbens L.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Hidalgo Co. (Cameron Co., sight record) 

Everitt, J.H., R.I. Lonard, and C.R. Little.  2007.  Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico.  Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock, Texas. Page 57: "Introduced. Tridax daisy, a federally listed noxious weed, was reported in Weslaco, Texas (Brown and Elsik 2002), and we have seen it in a recently landscaped park in Edinburg, Texas."

Tom Patterson (pers. observ. May 2009): “Since its report from Weslaco, I have seen T. procumbens become an abundant weed in disturbed soils along railroad tracks, curbs, and sidewalks in the communities of McAllen, Mission, Rio Grande City, and Roma.”  

 

* Zinnia violacea Cav.  Elegant zinnia

Keith, E.L.  2004.  Dimorphotheca sinuata and Zinnia violacea (Asteraceae), two escaped cultivars new to Texas.  Phytologia 86: 29–31. 

Walker Co.; “Approximately 10 individuals were found    The plants appear to have successfully reproduced because the area where they occurred is on the edge of a cattle pasture where intentional cultivation was unlikely.” 

 

BASELLACEAE

* Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped for Dallas, Tarrant, Travis, and Williamson cos.  

Voucher: City of Austin, near corner of Avenue H and 46th Street, massive vine completely covering fencerow, 5 feet high, adventive, according to residents, 29 Jul 1991, Guy & Genevieve Nesom  001 (TEX).  First report for Texas. 

 

BERBERIDACEAE

* Nandina domestica Thunb. %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Found as an escaped shrub in central Texas”

 

BIGNONIACEAE

* Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry

Brown, L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Fort Bend Co., Brazos Bend State Park, large population. 

 

* Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

BORAGINACEAE

* Anchusa azurea Mill.

Lemke, D.E. and V. Wesby.  1989.  Anchusa azurea (Boraginaceae), new to Texas.  Sida 13: 516. 

Kerr Co.  Apparently garden escapes, increasing in number along a roadside. 

 

* Heliotropium europaeum L.

Hutzler, P.L. and D.E. Lemke.  1991.  Recent collections of Heliotropium europaeum (Boraginaceae) from Texas.  Sida 14: 618–619.

Hays Co.  Previously known from an 1897 collection in Hays Co.; documented here from several collections from different habitats. 

 

* Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort. 

Johnston, I.M.  1924.  A synopsis of the American native and immigrant Borages of the Subfamily Boraginoideae.  Contr. Gray Herb. 70: 3–55. 

       Among the taxa treated by Johnston, only “L. texana var. genuina” was explicitly attributed to Texas.  Synonyms given by Johnston were L. texana (Scheele) Britt., L. cupulata Rydb., and L. rzedowskii var. cupulata (K. Schum.) Jones. 

 

* Tournefortia hirsutissima L.

Richardson, A. and W.K. King.  2009.  Tournefortia hirsutissima (Boraginaceae) new to the flora of Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 465–467. 

Large lianas (woody vines) growing next to the road and nearby in the town of San Benito, Cameron Co.  Native to Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, and South America.  “We suspect that the plants arrived by natural means, probably as seeds deposited by birds.  Llera and El Encino, two collection sites in Tamaulipas, Mexico, are less than 400 km from San Benito.” 

 

BRASSICACEAE

* Armoracia lacustris (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz & Bates

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324.  

First reported in 1987 from Tyler Co.; new records by Brown et al. 1998 from Liberty Co.  

 

* Brassica tournefourtii Gouan.

Lemke, D.E. and R.D. Worthington.  1991.  Brassica and Rapistrum (Brassicaceae) in Texas.  Southw. Naturalist 36: 194–197.  Also as Richard Worthington pers. comm. (in M.C. Johnston, 1990)

El Paso, Hudspeth cos.

 

* Cakile maritima Scop.

Rodman, J.E.  1974.  Systematics and evolution of the genus Cakile (Cruciferae).  Contr. Gray Herb. 205: 3–146.

Rodman cited “Texas, Balls Harbor, Reverchon s.n. (MO).   

 

* Camelina rumelica Velen.

McGregor, R.L.  1984.  Camelina rumelica, another weedy mustard established in North America.  Phytologia 55: 227–228.  

Denton Co.: 1.3 mi N Aubrey, along railroad, locally abundant, 9 Apr 1953, Shinners 14098 (SMU).  Wise Co.: 5.2 mi SE of Bridgeport, along railroad fill, locally abundant, 27 Mar 1953, Shinners 13857 (OKLA, SMU, TAES, UARK). 

 

* Cardamine debilis D. Don

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18:315–324. 

Dallas, DeWitt, Galveston, Harris cos.

 

* Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC.

Lipscomb, B.  1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327. 

Dallam, Dallas, Deaf Smith, El Paso cos.

White, H.L. and W.C. Holmes.  1998.  New plant records for central Texas.  Phytologia 85: 125–129. 

Addition from McLennan Co.

 

* Coronopus squamatus (Forsk.) Aschers.  

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database, based on “L.E. Brown, pers. comm.”  L.E. Brown (Larry), however, observes that “I am not familiar with this species.  I do not know how my name got associated with this species in Texas” (pers. comm., 22 Feb 2009).   The species is excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.

Rollins and Shaw pers. comm. 1980 (in M.C. Johnston, 1990).

El Paso Co.

Spellenberg, R.D., R.D. Worthington, P. Knight, and R. Fletcher.  1986.  Additions to the flora of New Mexico.  Sida 11: 455–470. 

El Paso Co.––sight records by Worthington "indicate this Old World weed to be well established and spreading."

 

* Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Montgomery Co.

 

* Lepidium latifolium L.

Worthington, R.D.  1990.  Additions to the flora of Texas from El Paso County.  Sida 14: 135–137.

El Paso Co.  “Common in sandy areas along the Rio Grande.” 

Also Worthington pers. comm. 1989 (in M.C. Johnston, 1990).

 

* Malcolmia africana (L.) Ait. f.

Al-Shehbaz, I.A.  1984.  The tribes of Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States.  J. Arnold Arb. 65: 343–373. 

       Al-Shehbaz noted in the introduction to the “Key to the Genera” that “Malcolmia africana (L.) R. Br. and Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. are well established weeds in Texas and some of the western states …”  No other evidence is known that Malcolmia occurs in Texas, and until a voucher might be found, the species is excluded here from the Texas flora. 

 

* Raphanus rapistrum L.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Fort Bend, Harris, San Jacinto cos.

 

* Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Listed by Gould (1975), “Texas Plants––A Checklist and Ecological Summary,” but not in floristic summaries after that.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Sinapis alba L. %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Sisymbrium orientale L.

Worthington, R.D.  1996.  Comments on plant species added to the flora of Texas from El Paso County with more additions.  Phytologia 80: 121–127.   Also Worthington pers. comm. 1985, 1989 (in M.C. Johnston 1990).

El Paso Co.; it “has become established on disturbed sites on the west side of El Paso.  It has been found in the spring on scraped lots, roadsides, and dumped dirt at 4000–4100 ft. elev.”  Noted by Rollins (1993) to occur in Texas. 

 

BUDDLEJACEAE

* Buddleja lindleyana Fortune

Singhurst, J.R. and W.C. Holmes. 2010. Comments on Buddleja lindleyana (Buddlejaceae) in Texas. Phytoneuron 2010-42: 1–2.

Montgomery, Morris, Travis cos.

                                                                                                                          "Field observations and specimens available for study suggest that the species does not form long-term self-replacing populations, particularly in the Pineywoods vegetational region. Its continued presence relies on cultivation and subsequent long persistence after abandonment." 

 

CACTACEAE

* Pereskia aculeata P. Mill.

Ideker, J.  1996.  Pereskia aculeata (Cactaceae), in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.  Sida 00: 527. 

Apparently naturalized in Willacy Co. in riparian woodland. 

Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for Willacy Co.  Two vouchers at TEX are evidently of plants cultivated in Brownsville, Cameron Co.   

 

CAMPANULACEAE

* Campanula rapunculoides L.

Brown, L.E.  1985.  Campanula rapunculoides (Campanulaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 11: 102.

Bandera Co., Lost Maples State Park

 

* Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. D.C.

M. C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

“This was known some years ago in Texas but was omitted inadvertently from the Manual.”

 

CANNABACEAE

* Cannabis sativa L. %

Correll, D.S.  1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Texas. 

 

CANNACEAE

* Canna ×generalis Bailey [C. glauca × C. indica]

Hill, S.R.  1982.  Distributional and nomenclatural notes on the flora of the Texas coastal bend.  Sida 9: 309–326. 

Refugio Co.: “similar to the frequently escaped and persistent Canna indica reported by Jones (1977), but differs in its yellow and orange, not red, flowers.  It persists at old house sites.”  Reported as Canna ×orchioides Bailey. 

 

* Canna glauca L.

Hatch et al. (1990); Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

Brazoria, Matagorda cos.

 

* Canna indica L. %

Jones, F.B.  1977.  Flora of the Texas Coastal Bend (ed. 2).  Welder Wildlife Foundation Contr. B-6.  Corpus Christi, Texas. 

Coastal bend area  

 

CAPPARIDACEAE

* Capparis incana Kunth

Correll, D.S.  1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Hidalgo Co.

J. Everitt pers. comm. 1988 (in M.C. Johnston 1990): Cameron Co., near Brownsville

Tom Patterson (pers. observ. May 2009): “Capparis incana occurs throughout Mexico north to northern Tamaulipas.  The plants I have seen in Cameron Co. appear to be native.  Just south of Cameron Co., C. incana is common around San Fernando.  Its distribution in Texas is similar to other species which occur (or occurred) as a few plants to a few populations north of their main distribution in Mexico, such as Boerhavia mathisiana, Chamaecrista greggii, Colubrina greggii, Esenbeckia berlandieri, Manihot subspicata, and Seleniserus spinulosus.  Seleniserus spinulosus was collected once in Texas in 1900 by J.N. Rose near Brownsville.  I have seen this epiphytic cactus growing in the ebanos near San Fernando and Cerralvo.  Both Capparis incana and Seleniserus spinulosus may have been more common in the Rio Grande Valley before the near complete removal of the vegetation from the flood plain of the Rio Grande Delta.”  

On the basis of Patterson’s observations and comments, Capparis incana is regarded as a native species. 

 

*Cleome hassleriana Chod.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

* Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton

Reported as sight records by Diggs et al. (1999, North Central Texas, fide R.J. O’Kennon) in Collin Co. and Tarrant Co.    

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Karan Rawlins, Marilyn Sallee, observations Feb and Mar 2009. <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=LOFR&cn=>  Tarrant Co., Fort Worth, N of Fort Worth, thickets, roadsides, along the Riverbottom Trail near Lake Worth. 

Nesom (pers. observ., May 2009): naturalized in Trinity Park in Fort Worth.

 

* Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. 

Luken, J.O. and J.W. Thieret.  1995.  Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii; Caprifoliaceae): Its ascent, decline, and fall.  Sida 16: 479–503.  Luken & Thieret did not mention Texas as included in the range of L. maackii.

 Reported as sight records by Diggs et al. (1999, North Central Texas. in the text, fide R.J. O’Kennon) in Dallas Co. and Tarrant Co.   Nesom (pers. observ., May 2009) notes that L. maackii is very common along trail sides and creek sides in Overton Park in Fort Worth. 

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Matthew Mortimer, Jim Shouse, observations and photos Feb and Apr 2009.  Dallas Co., Dallas, edge of woods, thickets, clearings.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=LOTA&cn=>  These plants were identified as Lonicera tatarica, but that species typically has red to pinkish flowers and has not been recorded as naturalized from any of the Gulf Coast states.  Lonicera morrowii also is similar to L. maackii but is not known to be naturalized as far south as Texas. 

 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

* Cerastium pumilum W. Curtis

Rabeler, R.K. and A.A. Reznicek.  1997.  Cerastium pumilum and Stellaria pallida (Caryophyllaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 17: 843–845.

Kaufman Co., “in moist, bare soil of lower slopes of a disturbed grassy/sedgy ditch.”

 

* Dianthus armeria L.

Lipscomb, B.  1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327.

Titus Co., three roadside localities

 

* Dianthus barbatus L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Gypsophila elegans M. Bieb 

Nesom, G.L. and R.J. O’Kennon.  2002.  New vascular plant records for Texas.  Sida 20: 435–436. 

Erath, Tarrant cos.

 

* Petrorhagia dubia (Raf.) G. López & Romo

Rabeler, R.K.  1985.  Petrorhagia (Caryophyllaceae) of North America.  Sida 11: 6–44.

14 counties in northeastern Texas, as mapped in Fig. 18 of Rabeler’s study. 

         Rabeler identified all Texas collections of Petrorhagia as P. velutina (Guss.) P.W. Ball & Heywood (= P. dubia), including those treated by Correll and Johnston (1970) as P. prolifera (L.) P.W. Ball & Heywood.  Petrorhagia prolifera occurs in Arkansas and Oklahoma (as mapped by Rabeler’s Fig 14) but is excluded from the Texas flora, although it is likely to be discovered here. 

 

* Sagina procumbens L. %

Hulten, E., and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer.

 

* Silene conoidea L.

Reed, M.D.  2004.  Silene conoidea (Caryophyllaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 21: 493–494. 

Washington Co.  

 

* Silene dichotoma Ehrh.

Attributed to the Texas flora by the PLANTS Database on the basis of Gleason (1963). 

Gleason, H.A.  1963.  The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 

 

* Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin   

Rabeler, R.K. and A.A. Reznicek.  1997.  Cerastium pumilum and Stellaria pallida (Caryophyllaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 17: 843–845.

Hopkins Co., “dry, sandy, open soil of a disturbed roadside, growing under Petrorhagia dubia.” 

 

* Stellaria parva Pederson

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Liberty Co. 

 

CASUARINACEAE

* Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Mary Grace Lopez, Paula Parson, and Walter Berry, observations and photos 2007, 2008, 2009.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=CAEQ&cn=>

Cameron Co. (South Padre Island, Loma Alta area) and Nueces Co. (Port Aransas).  Roadsides and vacant lots

Tom Patterson, pers. observ., May 2009: Casuarina equisetifolia is commonly planted in Cameron Co. as individual plants and wind breaks.  Where planted I have seen the plants increase in number, but not escaping into the surrounding vegestation.  In Florida, Tamaulipas (Tampico), and San Luis Potosi (Rio Verde), I have seen it become quite invasive.  I don't know about its invasiveness for the upper Texas coast.

 

CELASTRACEAE

* Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  First report of Euonymus fortunei (Celastraceae) naturalized in Texas.  Phytoneuron 2010-1: 1–4. 

Tarrant Co., Fort Worth, Overton Park, large clone(?), ca. 6 square feet, bank of drainage at edge of thicket, possibly washed downslope from house ca. 50 feet upslope, with Prunus caroliniana, Photinia serratifolia, Celtis laevigata, 18 May 2009, G.L. Nesom 09-01 (TEX, to be deposited). 

 

CHENOPODIACEAE

* Chenopodium giganteum D. Don  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped. 

Chenopodium giganteum was treated as a synonyn of C. album L. by Mosyakin (2003), who noted that “Chenopodium album, one of the worst weeds and most widespread synanthropic plants on the Earth, in its broad circumscription is also among the most polymorphic plant species.

Mosyakin, S.L.  2003.  Chenopodium.  FNANM Vol. 4

 

* Corispermum hyssopifolium L.  

Excluded from the Texas flora (Mosyakin 1995, 2003).  Plants in Texas previously identified as this species are treated by Mosyakin (1995, 2003) as C. americanum var. rydbergii Mosyakin

Mosyakin, S.L.  1995.  New taxa of Corispermum L. (Chenopodiaceae), with preliminary comments on taxonomy of the genus in North America. Novon 5: 340–353.  Mosyakin, S.L.  2003.  Corispermum.  FNANM Vol. 4

 

* Corispermum nitidum Kit. ex Schult.

Excluded from the Texas flora (Mosyakin 1995, 2003).  Plants identified as this probably are C. americanum var. rydbergii Mosyakin. 

 

* Corispermum orientale Lam.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  But according to Mosyakin (2003) “No specimens resembling typical Corispermum orientale were found in North American collections.  However, small-fruited and almost wingless specimens of C. villosum may be confused with C. orientale.”  

 

* Salsola kali subsp. pontica (Pallas) Mosyakin  %

Included for the Texas flora by Mosyakin (2003). 

Mosyakin, S. L. 1996. A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 387–395.  Mosyakin, S.L.  2003.  Salsola.  FNANM Vol. 4

 

CLUSIACEAE

* Hypericum perforatum L. 

Lipscomb, B.  1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327.

Montague, Wise cos.  Well-established along roadsides.  Recollected in Wise Co. in 2004.

 

COMBRETACEAE

* Conocarpus erectus L.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

* Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. 

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

Tom Patterson, pers. observ., May 2009:  “I discovered these two species in 1998 growing in storm passes through the sand dunes of South Padre Island in Willacy Co. about 30 miles north of the town of South Padre Island.  In five channels just south of the Mansfield Cut, I discovered over 15 plants of Conocarpus erectus and  4 plants of Laguncularia racemosa.  These channels open and fill with water after storms.  They remain full of water for the whole year.  The last freezing cold spells for the South Texas Coast were in 1983 and 1989.  The button mangroves (C. erectus) have grown in size and increased in number.  Only two of the white mangroves (L. racemosa) survive and remain as short prostrate shrubs.  The mangroves occur in undisturbed Spartina patens and Borrichia frutescens saline strand vegetation.”  

 

COMMELINACEAE

* Gibasis pellucida (Martens & Galeotti) D.R. Hunt

Rosen, D.J. and R.B. Faden.  2005.  Gibasis pellucida (Commelinaceae), a new and potentially weedy genus and species for Texas.  Sida 21: 1931–1934. 

Galveston, Harris cos.

 

* Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.  

Singhurst, J.R., J.N. Mink and W.S. Holmes.  2010.  New and noteworthy plants of Texas.  Phytologia 92: 249–255.

Travis, Victoria cos.

"In Texas, the species occurs in shaded areas, springs, streams, and seeps in limestone, often in mats."

 

CONVOLVULACEAE

* Ipomoea setosa Ker.-Gawl. %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Ipomoea turbinata Lag. %

   SYN= Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq.

M.C. Johnston (1990). 

 

* Ipomoea violacea L.  %

   SYN= Ipomoea tuba (Schlechtdl.) G. Don

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

CRASSULACEAE

* Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & Perrier

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Mary Grace Lopez, observations and photo 16 Nov 2007.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=KADA&cn=>

Nueces Co., SE side of Corpus Christi, “South Texas Botanical Gardens and Nature Center on South Staples. Three site locations on Nature/Bird Trail.” 

 

Everitt, J.H., R.I. Lonard, and C.R. Little.  2007.  Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock, Texas.  Page 82:  "Introduced.  This invasive species, introduced from Madagascar, is abundant in coastal soils at the Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site (Lonard, Richardson, and Richard 2004) and along the Arroyo Colorado in Cameron County (Christina Mild, pers. comm.).  Dense carpets of vivparous plantlets form under parent plants."

 

* Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

CUCURBITACEAE

* Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.   %

de Aquino Assis, J.G., M.A. de Queiroz, S.M. Campos de Araújo, G. Bandel, and P.S. Martins.  2000.  Implications of the introgression between Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus characters in the taxonomy, evolutionary dynamics and breeding of watermelon.  Plant Genet. Resour. Newsl. 121: 15–19.  

Smith, D.T. and A.W. Cooley.  1973.  Wild watermelon emergence and control.  Weed Sci. 21: 570–573.   

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

        Reported as a weed in Texas peanut fields (Smith & Cooley 1973; de Aquino Assis et al. 2000) and included in the checklist by Hatch et al (1990), but a documenting voucher for Texas has not been seen. 

 

* Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. var. lanatus  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  Var. citroides was reported in Correll & Johnston. 

 

* Cucumis anguria L.   

        Bur gherkin has been reported as an escape in California, Massachusetss, New York, Oregon, and Washington (var. anguria) and in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Montana, and Texas (var. longaculeata Kirkbr.) –– a summary of documentation is provided in USDA, NRCS (2010). 

 

* Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis (Naud.) Pangalo

Nesom, G.L.  2011.  New state records for Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) outside of cultivation in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2011-1: 1–7. 

Wilson, H.  1993.  Free-living Cucurbita pepo in the United States: Viral resistance, gene flow, and risk assessment.  Report prepared for USDA APHIS BBEP Biotechnology Coord.  <http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/flcp/flcp1.htm>

 

        Previously identified as Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.                     

 

        Subsp. agrestis in Texas is documented from various sources from 52 counties.  From TEX-LL and SMU-BRIT: Brazoria, Burleson, Calhoun, Cameron, Chambers, DeWitt, Erath, Galveston, Harris, Hidalgo, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Jim Wells, Matagorda, Refugio, San Patricio, San Saba, Sutton, Travis, Waller, Webb, and Williamson.  Additional counties from the TAMU online database: Brazos, Caldwell, Colorado, Grimes, Hill, Robertson, and Uvalde.  Wilson (1993) documented its occurrence in an additional set of counties: Aransas, Bell, Bexar, Comal, Denton, Dewitt, Fayette, Goliad, Gonzales, Hamilton, Kinney, Kleberg, Lee, Llano, Madison, Menard, Milam, Navarro, San Jacinto, Trinity, Valverde, and Washington. 

 

* Cucurbita moschata Duchesne

Nesom, G.L.  2011.  New state records for Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) outside of cultivation in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2011-1: 1–7. 

Dallas, Smith cos. 

        Trash heaps, parks, waste ground

 

* Sicyos microphyllus Kunth

J. Henrickson pers. comm. (in M.C. Johnston 1990).

Davis and Chisos Mountains.  Species native to Texas. 

 

CUSCUTACEAE

* Cuscuta japonica Choisy

Lisa Gonzalez, L. and J. DallaRosa.  2006.  The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area.  Houston Advanced Research Center.

Harris Co.

 

CYPERACEAE

* Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Clarke

Jones, S.D. and J.K. Wipff.  1992.  Bulbostylis barbata (Cyperaceae), previously unreported for Texas.  Phytologia 73: 381–383. 

Newton Co.; roadside in disturbed area along small ditch.  The species was noted by Kral (1971) as a rapidly expanding invader in the SE USA, common forming dense populations in cultivated ground. 

 

* Cyperus difformis L.

Carr, W.R.  1988.  Cyperus difformis L. (Cyperaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 13: 255–256.  Lipscomb, B.L.  1980.  Cyperus difformis L. (Cyperaceae) in North America.  Sida 8: 320–327.

Travis Co., Williamson Co.  First collected in 1981, noted to be spreading in the Brazos and Colorado river systems.  Background on the species, prior to Texas documentation by Lipscomb (1980).  Newton Co. added by Bryson et al. (1996).  Bryson, C.T., J.R. MacDonald, R. Carter, and S.D. Jones.  1996.  Noteworthy Carex, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Kyllinga, and Oxycaryum (Cyperaceae) from Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas.  Sida 17: 501–518. 

 

* Cyperus entrerianus Böckeler   Deeprooted sedge

Carter, R.  1990.  Cyperus entrerianus (Cyperaceae), an overlooked species in temperate North America.  Sida 14: 69–77.  Carter, R. and S.D. Jones.  1991.  Additional records of Cyperus entrerianus (Cyperaceae) in the United States.  Sida 14: 615–616.  Rosen, D.J.,  R. Carter, and Charles T. Bryson.  2006.  The recent spread of Cyperus entrerianus (Cyperaceae) in the southeastern United States and its invasive potential in bottomland hardwood forests.  Southeastern Nat. 5: 333–344. 

First reported for Texas by Carter 1990 in Chambers, Fort Bend, and Harris cos.; Jackson, Newton cos. added in 1991; many additional southeastern counties added later. 

 

* Cyperus eragrostis Lam.

Noted by Tucker (1987, 1994) to be naturalized in Texas but without documentation.  Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Galveston, Harris cos. 

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264.  

Brazoria, Houston cos.

 

* Cyperus phaeolepis Cherm.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed

 

* Cyperus pilosus Vahl

Newton Co., in Caney Creek Park.  Previously known to be introduced from South Carolina and Florida to Louisiana, where it “inhabits hydric soils of wet ditches, rice fields, edges of ponds, and wetlands.” 

Carter, R., C.M. Allen, and P. and D.P Lewis.  2009.  Cyperus pilosus (Cyperaceae) new to the flora of Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 457–459.

 

* Cyperus prolixus Kunth  %

Hatch et al 1990; Turner et al. 2003, as mapped

Galveston Co.

 

* Eleocharis vivipara Link  

Kessler, J.W.  1983.  Cyperaceae new to Texas and Louisiana.  Sida 10: 190–191.

Robertson Co.; apparently native but nativity ambiguous. 

 

* Rhychospora debilis Gale

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Chambers Co.

 

* Scirpus cubensis Poepp. & Kunth

 Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Brazoria, Fort Bend cos.  These apparently are the westernmost records for this species in its native range.  It occurs in 8 parishes in Louisiana. 

 

DIOSCORIDACEAE

* Dioscorea bulbifera L.   %

Correll, D.S.  1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Eastern Texas

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

No voucher at TEX.  The Invaders of Texas database and EDD map shows the species in Harris Co. 

 

* Dioscorea oppositifolia L.     

Johnston (1990) noted that “There is a possibility that D. oppositifolia also occurs in Texas (for nomenclature and character-states see Al-Shehbaz & Schubert 1989).”  The species is included for Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of the Johnston (1990) allusion, but no vouchers have been seen and the species is excluded from the Texas flora.  

 

DIPSACACEAE

* Dipsacus fullonum L.

Singhurst, J.R. and W.C. Holmes.  2000.  Dipsacus fullonum (Dipsacaceae) and Verbesina walteri (Asteraceae), new to Texas.  Sida 19: 723–725. 

Collin Co.

 

* Scabiosa atropurpurea L.  

 Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  Vouchered at TEX for Collin, Hunt, Lamar, and Rockwall counties.

 

DRYOPTERIDACEAE

* Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) Presl

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Harris Co.; naturalized plants on bank of Langham Creek, west of Houston

 

ELAEAGNACEAE

* Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Widely escaped in the Great Plains, including the northern parts of the Texas panhandle.”  Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for 8 counties. 

 

* Elaeagnus commutata Rydb. %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

Texas

 

* Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped for Brazos, Dallas, and Tarrant cos.

 

EUPHORBIACEAE

* Caperonia palustris (L.) A. St.-Hil.

Included by Correll & Johnston, but omitted by error on earlier iterations of the present account.   C&J noted that “the species arrived in Tex. about 1920” and cited Harris, Jefferson, and Matagorda counties.  Turner’s Atlas (2003) shows it in 10 counties. 

 

* Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.

Lipscomb, B. 1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327. 

Dallas Co., flower beds.  “Correll & Johnston noted E. hirta as a rare waif in coastal south Texas and not persistent.” 

 

* Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. 

“Many populations of Texas Chamaesyce hypericifolia are likely to be vagrants but it appears to be native in Mexico and south.  Also, I think it may be native in southern Florida and southern Texas.  North of the Austin area, it favors unnatural urban plantings but in southern Texas, acts more like a native/or is often quite naturalized” (Mark Mayfield, June 2009).  Regarded here as native to Texas. 

 

* Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small 

“I have never questioned that Chamaesyce nutans is a true native in North America, so I haven't researched it thoroughly.  On the face of it, it seems native in Texas, even if weedy.  It grows in naturally open/disturbed situations in much of the eastern USA too” (Mark Mayfield, June 2009).  Native to Texas.  

 

* Euphorbia cyparissias L. %

Hulten, E. and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer (as cited by the PLANTS Database).  Native to the Old World.  No voucher has been seen and it has never been reported by Texas botanists –– based on the PLANTS reference, it remains on the account of Texas non-natives as “Status unknown.”  

 

* Euphorbia exigua L.

Correll & Johnston (1970) noted that E. exigua was “collected once in Nueces Co. (adventive from Old World); probably not a persistent member of our flora.”  Excluded from the Texas flora.

 

* Euphorbia graminea Jacq.

Hidalgo Co.  Greenhouses and flower beds on the campus of Univ. of Texas––Pan American in Edinburg. 

Everitt, J.H., R.I. Lonard, and C.R. Little.  2007.  Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico: A Guide to Identification.  Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock. 

Jed Aplaca (pers. comm.) notes that he and Larry Brown have collected this species in several locales in Harris Co. 

 

* Euphorbia lathyris L.

O’Kennon, R.J.  1991.  Euphorbia lathyris (Euphorbiaceae) new for Texas.  Sida 14: 609–610.

Gillespie Co.

 

* Manihot esculenta Crantz

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

Hardin Co.: “One wild population … has been found to persist near Silsbee.” 

 

*Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Harris Co.

 

* Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

Chambers Co., Galveston Co.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Harris Co., “frequent weedy plant in pots at Anderson Nursery” in Houston

 

FABACEAE

* Aeschynomene evenia C. Wright

Rudd, V.E.  1955.  The American species of Aeschynomene.  Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 32: 1–172.

Specimens cited from 3 counties.  Cameron Co.: Brownsville, Runyon 2859 (US).  Kleberg Co.: Riviera, 7 Sep 1929, Tharp s.n. (UC); Armstrong, Runyon 1956 (US); Nueces Co.: Corpus Christi, Nealley s.n. (F, MO).  “The Texas specimens approach Ae. indica in size of plants and in general appearance.  However, on the basis of fruit width and number and shape of articles, they are here cited as Ae. evenia var. evenia.”

 

* Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC

Noted by Isely (1990) to occur in Texas but not documented.  Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Hardin, Liberty cos. 

 

* Arachis hypogaea L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Bauhinia galpinii N.E. Br.

Isely, D.  1975.  Leguminosae of the United States: II. Subfamily Caesalpinoideae.  Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 25: 1–228. 

The statement of range noted “S Florida, probably Texas, Arizona, California,” and the map did not show a collection from Texas.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Bauhinia monandra Kurz

Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2 Leguminosae (Fabaceae).

The statement of range noted “Urban areas primarily, cult. ornamental, occasionally persistent; cp. Fla. [Tex].”  Not attributed to Texas in Isely (1998).  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Bauhinia purpurea L.

Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2 Leguminosae (Fabaceae).

The statement of range noted “Cult. ornamental, locally naturalized; cp. Fla. [Tex].”  Not attributed to Texas in Isely (1998).  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Bauhinia variegata L.

Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2 Leguminosae (Fabaceae).

The statement of range noted “Urban areas primarily, cult. ornamental, slightly established, cp. Fla and probably La. [Tex].”  Isely (1998) included it for Texas as “introduced.”  Not listed by Hatch et al. (1990) or vouchered at TEX.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray

Comments from Tom Patterson, 12 Aug 2009:

“I think it is non-native in south Texas.  Caesalpinia mexicana is cultivated throughout the Rio Grande Valley by the common folk.  It does occur in the wild in scattered localities.  Everitt, Drawe, and Lonard (2002) in Trees, Shrubs & Cacti of South Texas:  "Cultivated in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in the extreme southern portion of the Rio Grande Plains where it has escaped along resacas and in brushlands."  Further south in Tamaulipas and between Cerralvo and Monterrey in Nuevo Leon, it appears to be native.” 

 

* Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.

Sauer, J.  1964.  Revision of Canavalia.  Brittonia 16: 106–181. 

“All available collections with habitat data are either from cultivation or apparently feral escapes in artificial habitats.”  Sauer cited as a voucher from Texas “Howard 921 (US).  Specimens at TEX are from cultivated plants in Dallas Co.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

* Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.

Hatch et al. 1990; Turner et al. (2003), as mapped for Kleberg and Kenedy cos.  Isely (1998) added a record for Cameron Co.

Tom Patterson, pers. observ., May 2009: “Canavalia rosea was collected from Padre Island in Kenedy Co. by Hildebrand in 1955.  Turner collected it in Cameron Co. near the ferry landing in 1959.  I visited the ferry landing site in 1995 and found C. rosea still persisting.  Since then C. rosea is becoming a dominant dune plant in the town of South Padre Island.”  

 

* Coronilla varia L

Lipscomb, B. 1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327. 

Montague Co., apparently seeded along highways and quickly naturalized.

 

* Crotalaria retusa L.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

* Indigofera suffruticosa Miller

As treated in Correll & Johnston (1970) -- omitted in early versions of this list. 

 

* Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. 

Nesom, G.L. and L.E. Brown.  1998.  An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Walker, Montgomery, and San Jacinto counties, Texas.  Phytologia 84:107–153. 

Cited in the checklist from San Jacinto Co.; documented by a collection by Nesom in SHSC.  A large population was encountered in Sam Houston Natl. Forest, perhaps initially planted for wildlife forage. 

 

* Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

Hatch et al. (2003), as listed. 

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Allan R. Berger, Cathy Brock, Frankie Fox, Ruth Hoese, Kris Kirkwood, Richard Klopshinske, Mary Grace Lopez, Victor Madamba, Gary Martin, and Elizabeth Rodriguez, observations and photos 2007, 2008, 2009.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=LELE10&cn=>

Nueces Co. (S, SE, and E side of Corpus Christi, Padre Island, Portland), Galveston Co. (Galveston), Aransas Co. (Aransas Pass, Rockport).  Fencerows, low areas along roadsides and disturbed sites, open fields, railroad right-of-way. 

 

* Macroptilon gibbosifolium (Ortega) A. Delgado   %

Hatch et al. (2003), as listed.  Nativity ambiguous. 

 

* Mimosa asperata L. var. berlandieri (A. Gray ex Torr.) B.L. Rob. 

     SYN = Mimosa pigra L. var. berlandieri (A. Gray ex Torr.) B.L. Turner

Hatch et al. 1990, as listed; Turner et al. (2003), as mapped for Zapata, Starr, Hidalgo, Cameron, and Willacy cos.  Apparently native in Texas at the northern extremity of its range. 

 

* Mimosa pellita Kunth ex Willd.

Attribution of this species to Texas by the PLANTS Database, ostensibly based on a listing by Hatch et al. (1990), is incorrect, as there apparently is no such listing.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Neptunia plena

Richardson, A. and K. King.  2008.  Neptunia plena (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) rediscovered in Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2: 1491–1493. 

Kenedy Co.  Originally collected by Robert Runyon in 1938 in a shallow pond south of Armstrong; found again in 2007 near the same site, a low area in a highway median with underlying clay. 

 

* Oxyrhynchus volubilis Brandeg.  %

Hatch et al. 1990, as listed.  Not included in Isely 1998.  The type from San Luis Potosi, Mexico.  Here regarded as non-native, critically requiring documentation. 

 

* Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Isely, D.  1972.  Legumes of the United States.  VI.  Calliandra, Pithecellobium, Prosopis.  Madroño 21: 273–298. 

The statement of range noted “Southern Florida and southernmost (Cameron Co.) Texas, occasional in cultivation and as an escape.”  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Senna surattensis (Burm. f.) Irwin & Barneby

Isely, D.  1998.  Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). 

The statement of range noted “Old World tropics, planted and naturalized in warm regions of New World.  In US, subtropical FL, s TX, urban CA in cult.”  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Sesbania emerus (Aubl.) Urb.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped; widely distributed in east Texas.  Not in PLANTS Database for Texas

 

* Sesbania sericea (Willd.) Link   %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

* Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Poir.

Godfrey, R.K. 1988.  Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Northern Florida and Adjacent Georgia and Alabama.  Univ. of Georgia Press, Athens. 

Texas (“not confirmed” by M.C. Johnston 1990).; excluded from the Texas flora.

 

* Spartium junceum L.

Worthington, R.D.  1996.  Comments on plant species added to the flora of Texas from El Paso County with more additions.  Phytologia 80: 121–127. 

El Paso Co.; “commonly escapes from cultivation and becomes established on vacant lots, roadsides, and arroyos.”

 

* Trifolium lappaceum L.

Brown L.E. and C.E. Peterson. 1984.  Carex rosea (Cyperaceae), Trifolium lappaceum (Fabaceae), and Aira caryophyllacea (Poaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 10: 263–264. 

Hardin, Harris cos., lawns and roadsides

 

* Trifolium subterraneum L.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

* Trifolium vesiculosum Savi

Correll, D.S. 1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Eastern Texas, adventive in pastures and roadsides

Add Madison, Robertson cos., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009

 

* Trifolium willdenovii Spreng.

Not in the PLANTS Database for Texas; not attributed to Texas by Isely (1998).  Excluded from the Texas flora.    

 

* Vicia grandiflora Scop. 

Singhurst, J.R., M. White, and W.C.Holmes.  2002.  Noteworthy collections: Texas. Vicia grandiflora (Fabaceae), Iris fulva (Iridaceae), and Silene virginica (Caryophyllaceae).  Castanea 67: 213–216. 

Fannin Co.

 

* Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray

Flook, J.M. 1975.  Additions and corrections to the flora of Texas.  Sida 6: 114. 

Shelby Co., near Center

 

* Vicia lathyroides L.  

Hill, S., R. Loper, J.R. Singhurst, and W.C. Holmes.  2007.  Vicia lathyroides (Fabaceae): new to the flora of Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1253–1254. 

Smith Co.

 

* Vicia lutea L.

Neill, A.K.  1999.  Vicia lutea (Fabaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 18: 1265–1266. 

Madison Co.

 

* Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench

Nixon, E.S. and S.C. Damuth. 1988.  Five additions to the Texas flora.  Sida 12: 421–423. 

Walker, Trinity, Anderson, and Morris cos. in 1984, Cherokee and Smith cos. in 1985.  Noted to be quickly spreading.

 

* Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC.

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of Duncan (1967), but Duncan did not map this species for Texas; not attributed to Texas by Isely (1998).   Excluded from the Texas flora. 

Duncan, W.H.  1967.  Woody vines of the southeastern states.  Sida 3: 1–76. 

 

FUMARIACEAE

* Fumaria densiflora DC.

Reed, M., R.V. Lansdown, and T.C.G. Rich.  2008.  The species of Fumaria (Papaveraceae) in Texas, including F. densiflora, first records from North America.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2: 1347–1351. 

Bexar, Dimmit, Montgomery, Travis, Wharton cos.  Non-natives Fumaria officinalis L. and Fumaria parviflora Lam. were included in Correll & Johnston (1970).  Among the collections of F. officinalis, Reed et al. identified subsp. officinalis and subsp. wirtgenii (Koch) Sell.

 

GENTIANACEAE

* Centaurium muhlenbergii (Griseb.) Piper

Holmes, W.C. and D.E. Wivagg.  1996.  Identification and distribution of Centaurium muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum (Gentianaceae) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.  Phytologia 80: 23–29. 

Ellis, Falls, Freestone, Hardin, Johnson, Leon, Limestone, McLennan, Milam, Navarro, Robertson cos.  Very similar to C. pulchellum.  

 

* Centarium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce

Correll, D.S. 1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Hardin, Harris cos.

Holmes, W.C. and D.E. Wivagg.  1996.  Identification and distribution of Centaurium muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum (Gentianaceae) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.  Phytologia 80: 23–29. 

Galveston, Hardin, Harris, Jasper, Liberty, Limestone, Orange, Rusk, Tyler cos.  Turner (1993) cited specimens for Brazoria Co. and Hardin Co. 

 

GERANIACEAE

* Erodium malacoides (L.) Willd. 

Lemke, D.E. and J.L. Aplaca.  2006.  Erodium malacoides (Geraniaceae), new to Texas.  Sida 22: 1245–1249. 

Hays Co.

 

GOODENIACEAE

* Scaveola plumieri (L.) Vahl

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “This species has apparently not been found in Texas after Hurricane Carla.” 

        Tom Patterson, pers. observ., May 2009: Scaveola plumieri was collected in Cameron Co. in 1928 and in Nueces Co. in 1928, 1954, and 1953.  Apparently this species does not persist in Texas.  In the town of South Padre Island a cultivated variety of S. plumieri is planted around condos but I have not seen it escape.  I found a natural population south of Playa de Bagdad in the Municipio of Matamoros, so with time it may become reestablished in Texas.”

 

HALORAGACEAE

* Myriophyllum hippuroides T. & G.

Aiken, S.G.  1981.  A conspectus of Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) in North America.  Brittonia 33: 57–69. 

Reed, C.F.  1970.  Selected weeds of the United States.  Agric. Research Service, USDA Handbook 336. 

Taylor, R.J. and C.E.S. Taylor.  1989.  An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma.

Tyrl, R.J. (coordinator) et al.  2009.  Keys and descriptions for the vascular plants of Oklahoma.  Flora Oklahoma, Inc.  Noble, Oklahoma. 

         Aiken (1981) simply gave a general distributional statement from Reed (1970), who “found that it occurred in the western half of the United States and extended east to the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.”  Johnston (1990) included it in his updated list based on the reference by Aiken (1981).  Otherwise, no documentation apparently exists for this species in Texas, at least in Texas herbaria, and it is here excluded from the Texas flora.  It is cited by PLANTS for Oklahoma based on Taylor and Taylor (1989), but the recent account of the Oklahoma flora (2009) does not include the species. 

         Reed (1970) remarked that “M. hippuroides is not too dissimilar from M. heterophyllum and may prove to be identical with it.”  The native range of M. hippuroides is California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and it perhaps is restricted to that area. 

 

* Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Included in the 1970 Texas Flora; documented by voucher at TEX for 10 counties and noted by Jackie Poole (pers. comm.) to be “probably another underrepresented species, due in part to it being overlooked as another Myriophyllum species.”  Counties represented by TEX collections: Burnet, Colorado, Crosby, Hardin, Hays, Hutchinson, Jack, Menard, Panola, and Robertson. 

Reed, C.F.  1977.   History and distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil in United States and Canada.  Phytologia 36: 417–436.  Reed cited collections from Hays Co., Burnet Co., and the “Colorado-Fayette Co. line.”  

 

HYDROCHARITACEAE

* Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Caspary

Flook, J.M.  1975.  Additions and corrections to the flora of Texas.  Sida 6: 114. 

Hays Co., backwaters of San Marcos River

          The species is shown in the PLANTS Database in Wise and Freestone cos.; in the Turner et al. (2006) Atlas in Brazos, Freestone, Hays, Jackson, Polk, and Washington cos.; the specimen database for herbarium TEX has collections from Freestone, Hays, Lee, and Travis cos. 

          Mapped collection data for Hydrilla verticillata on the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species web site (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/) show the species in at least 85 counties, as counted from an overlay of counties over the drainage systems in which it is known to occur. 

 

* Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi.  1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Jefferson Co., “common aquatic in J.D. Murphree Wildlife Management Area in Port Acres”

 

IRIDACEAE

* Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora (V. Lemoine) N.E. Br.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed

 

* Iris pallida Lam.  %

Listed by the Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group (internet site apparently no long accessible).   

 

* Romulea rosea (L.) Eckl.

Singhurst, J.R., K.M. Fleming, R. Loper, V. Privett, and W.C. Holmes.  2009.  Romulea rosea (Iridaceae): Adventive in Texas.  Phytologia 91: 73–75. 

Henderson Co.  “In 2005, the population consisted of approximately twenty individuals scattered over about one-half hectare under closed, undisturbed forest canopy dominated by Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus spp., and Carya sp.  In March 2008, the population was estimated to be ‘at least 100 plants over a larger area’ (Fleming, pers. obs.).” 

 

* Sisyrinchium iridifolium Kunth

Listed for Texas by Gould (1975; Texas plants - A checklist and ecological summary) but not in any later accounts.  The species is excluded from the Texas flora.

 

* Tritonia crocosmiflora Lem.

Correll, D.S.  1972.  Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections.  Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496.

Hardin Co., escaped along a RR track

 

JUGLANDACEAE  

* Juglans ×bixbyi Rehd.  [J. ailanthifolia × J. cinerea]

This taxon is included for Texas by the PLANTS web site, which sites as the source “Manning, Wayne. Personal communication.  Manning’s observation probably was of a cultivated plant, and without any other documentation; it is excluded from the naturlized Texas flora.  

 

LAMIACEAE

* Glechoma hederacea L.  %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

Texas.

 

* Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Liberty Co. 

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Hardin Co.

 

* Mentha arvensis L.  %

Noted by Correll & Johnston (1970) to be circumboreal, but it is likely that most of the North American population is introduced. 

 

* Mentha suaveolens L.

Hulten, E. and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 

There are no vouchers at TEX (in contrast to the PLANTS Database), but it has been collected as an escape in Tarrant Co. (Nesom 0000, BRIT). 

 

* Prunella vulgaris L.

 “The European var. vulgaris, introduced into disturbed sites in our range, tends to have relatively broad leaves, the middle cauline ones half as wide as long, with broadly rounded base.  The native var. lanceolata, in both disturbed and natural sites, has narrower leaves, the middle cauilne one a third as wide as long, with tapering base. (Gleason & Cronquist 1991, p. 450).  The Texas plants are var. vulgaris, if such a distinction actually can be made in North America. 

 

* Rosmarinus officinalis L.  % 

Noted by Correll & Johnston (1970), in the introduction to Lamiaceae, to be a “possible escape.” 

 

* Salvia hispanica L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Scutellaria minor Hudson 

Brown, L.E.  1986.  Scutellaria minor (Lamiaceae) new to North America.  Sida 11: 489.

Montgomery Co., roadside ditches in town of Porter and near Kingwood

 

* Stachys arvensis (L.) L.

  Mulligan, G.A. and D.B. Munro.  1989.  Taxonomy of species of North American Stachys (Labiatae) found north of Mexico.  Naturaliste Canadien 116: 35–51. 

“It has been introduced from Europe into waste land and cultivated fields in British Columbia, California, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Nova Scotia, Oregon, and Pennsylvania.  It only seems to persist along the west coast of North America. (p. 40).”  Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of Mulligan & Munro (1989) but there is no mention of S. arvensis in Texas in that publication.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Stachys floridana Shuttlew. ex Benth. in DC.

Nelson, J.B.  1981.  Stachys (Labiatae) in southeastern United States.  Sida 9: 104–123.

         Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) from Brazoria, Galveston, Hardin, Tyler, and Walker cos.; native to the SE USA but invasively expanding its range.  The type collection was made in Florida.  “Once established, a population of S. floridana grows rapidly in confined or open areas, tending to choke out other plants if in a lawn or garden.  Most attempts at eradication of the species fail; any disturbing of the tubers seems to encourage new growth.”  “The single most important reason for its expanding distribution must be its being moved in nursery stock, especially azaleas and camellias.  Since Florida is one of the most active states in the ornamental nursery trade, it is possible that nearly all of the collections of S. floridana in the southeast could be traced, directly or indirectly, to Florida” (Nelson 1981).  

 

LEMNACEAE

* Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & Crawford

   Formerly treated as Spirodela punctata (G. Mey.) C.H. Thompson –– studies by Landolt (1986) and Crawford and colleagues show this species to be native to Australia and Southeast Asia.  The earliest known collection from North America was made in 1930 from Kansas City, Missouri. 

Landolt, E.  1986.  The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study.  Vol 1. In: Biosystematic Investigations in the Family of Duckweeds (Lemnaceae).  Veroff. Geobot. Inst. ETH, Stiftung Rubel. No. 71. 

Les, D.H. and D.J. Crawford.  1999.  Landoltia (Lemnaceae), a new genus of duckweeds.  Novon 9: 530–533.

 

LENTIBULARIACEAE

* Utricularia foliosa L.

Indicated by Taylor (1989) to occur in Texas, but without documentation.  Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Brazoria Co., Chambers Co., Fort Bend Co., Hardin Co., Jefferson Co., Liberty Co.  Native to the southestern USA, and at its westernmost extension in Texas. 

 

LILIACEAE (sensu lato)

* Allium ampeloprasum L.  %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Occurring wild in Texas”

 

* Allium cepa L.

Hatch et al. (1990) listed this species but explicitly noted that it is cultivated.  The species is excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Allium porrum L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Alstroemeria pulchella L. f.

Singhurst, J.R., E.L. Keith, and W.C. Holmes.  2005.  Three species of vascular plants new to Texas.  Phytologia 87: 124–128. 

Newton Co. 

 

* Asphodelus fistulosus L.  %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Rare adventive weed in western Texas”

 

* Crinum bulbispermum (Burm. f.) Milne-Redhead & Schweickerdt  

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed; Correll & Johnston (1970) noted that the species “has been reported from Texas but no material has been seen of this plant.”  Specimens at TEX document escapes of the species in Galveston, Harris, Limestone, and Wharton cos.

 

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed, incorrectly including Hemerocallis fulva as a synonym.  Both species are roadside escapes in Texas. 

 

* Hyacinthus orientalis L.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Lilium lancifolium Thunb. (syn = Lilium tigrinum Ker. Gawl)

Singhurst, J.R. and W.C. Holmes.  2010.  Lilium lancifolium (Liliaceae): New to Texas.  Phytologia 92: 56–58. 

Morris Co., Daingerfield State Park, Park Rd. 17, near residence 

 

* Lilium philippinense Baker  

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Newton Co., Tyler Co.  

Reported by Brown and Elsik (2002) as Lilium longiflorum Thunb.; ID corrected to L. philippinense (see Singhurst and Holmes 2010).

 

* Liriope spicata Lour.

Brown, L.E., B.R. MacRoberts, M.H. MacRoberts, P. Harcombe, W.W. Pruess, S. Elsik, and D. Johnson.  2005.  Annotated checklist of the vascular flora of the Turkey Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve, Tyler and Hardin counties, Texas.  Sida 21: 1807–1827. 

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Overview of Liriope and Ophiopogon (Ruscaceae) naturalized and commonly cultivated in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2010-56: 1–31. 

Hardin, Tarrant cos.

          In large colonies along a forested creek within a city park in Fort Worth (Tarrant Co.); from a bottomland hardwood forest in the Big Thicket National Preserve (Hardin Co.).  A report of Ophiopogon jaburan from Hardin Co. (Brown et al. 2005) probably also is Liriope spicata: Big Thicket National Preseve, along the Kirby Nature Trail near Turkey Creek “far from any house or farm land.” 

 

* Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Overview of Liriope and Ophiopogon (Ruscaceae) naturalized and commonly cultivated in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2010-56: 1–31. 

Tarrant Co. 

        One small colony in Bob Eden Park in Euless, in low woods. 

See comments under Ophiopogon japonicus. 

 

* Muscari comosum (L.) Mill.   

Luckeydoo, L.M.  2005.  Muscari comosum (Liliaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 21: 2445–2447. 

Parker Co.

 

* Ophiopogon jaburan (Sieb.) Loddiges [not known from Texas]

        False report; see comments under Liriope spicata.   

 

* Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl. [cultivated, not naturalized]

Neill, A.K. and H.D. Wilson.  2001.  The vascular flora of Madison County, Texas.  Sida 19: 1083–1121. 

        "The occurrence of Liriope spicata was been attributed to Texas (Kartesz 2010; USDA, NRCS 2010) on the basis of a report by Neill and Wilson (2001).  This Texas report, however (p. 1093), described the species as one of several “found in varying stages of persistence at an old abandoned home sites and cemeteries … and not appearing to be adventive;” the label explicitly notes that the specimen was collected from an “Abandoned old home site … persisting after cultivation, rhizomatous-spreading” (Madison Co., 15 Jun 1997 [no flowers or fruits], Neill 672, TAMU digital image!).  The plants are clearly stoloniferous, with stiffly arching leaves 10–19 cm long and 2–3 mm wide ––a collection of Ophiopogon japonicus rather than L. spicata."  Quoted from Nesom 2010, see Liriope spicata.    

 

* Ornithogalum umbellatum L.  

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  A specimen at TEX was collected in Midland (Midland Co.) in 1931 does not indicate whether or not it was escaped. 

 

* Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264.  

Hardin, Harris cos.  

 

LIMNOCHARITACEAE

* Hydrocleys nymphoides (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Buch.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

LYTHRACEAE

* Cuphea glutinosa Cham. & Schlecht.

Graham, S.A.  1975.  Taxonomy of the Lythraceae of the southeastern United States.  Sida 6: 80–103.

Jackson, Tyler cos. 

 

* Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

San Augustine Co.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264.  

Harris Co.

 

* Lythrum salicaria L.

Flook, J.M. 1975.  Additions and corrections to the flora of Texas.  Sida 6: 114. 

Hardin Co., “almost in water of stream along roadside leading to Sour Lake, W of Hwy 69”

 

MAGNOLIACEAE

* Liriodendron tulipifera L.

Native to the eastern United States but not reaching Texas in its native range.  Rarely naturalizing in east Texas (Nesom, pers. observ). 

 

MALVACEAE

* Hibiscus esculentus L.

Flook, J.M. 1975.  Additions and corrections to the flora of Texas.  Sida 6: 114. 

Milam Co., river bottom 1 mi east of Cameron

 

* Pavonia hastata Cav.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Harris Co.

 

MENYANTHACEAE

* Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze  

Saunders, K.  2005.  First record of Nymphoides indica (Menyanthaceae) in Texas.  Sida 21: 2441–2443. 

Uvalde Co.

 

MOLLUGINACEAE

* Mollugo cerviana (L.) Seringe  %

A weed of sandy places in tropical and subtropical regions around the world (southern Europe; southern Asia, Africa, and Australia) –– fide M.A. Vincent, FNA Vol. 4: 11.  

 

* Mollugo verticillata L.

“Some authors consider Mollugo verticillata a native of the New World tropics that spread northward into subtropical and temperate regions (M.L. Fernald 1950; H.A. Gleason and A. Cronquist 1991).  If so, the species apparently spread very rapidly, because herbarium specimens exist from Ohio in 1828, Michigan in 1837, and Maine in 1837.  J. Chapman et al. (1974) presented archaeological evidence of pre-Columbian presence of M. verticillata at a site in Tennessee” (M.A. Vincent, FNA Vol. 4: 11).  

 

MORACEAE

* Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai 

Lipscomb, B.  1984.  New additions or otherwise noteworthy plants of Texas.  Sida 10: 326–327.

Bexar Co., Dallas Co. 

Add Brazos, Burleson cos., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009

 

* Morus nigra L.  

Gould, F.W.  1975.  Texas plants - A checklist and ecological summary.

        Listed by Gould (1975) but not included in any subsequent accounts.  The species is excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

MYRSINACEAE

* Ardisia crenata Sims

Singhurst, J.R., W. Ledbetter, & W.C. Holmes. 1997.  Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae): New to Texas.  Southwestern Naturalist 42: 503–504. 

Hardin Co.  Evergreen subshrubs. 

 

MYRTACEAE

* Myrtus communis L.

Brown, L.E. and I.S. Elsik.  2002.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. II.  Sida 20: 437–444. 

Brazoria Co. 

 

NAJADACEAE

* Posidonia oceania (L.) Delile

“Specimens attributed to this species in the Manual have been redetermined as Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex Koenig.”  Fide Johnston (1990).  Posidonia oceania is excluded from the Texas flora.

 

OLEACEAE

*Jasminum mesnyi Hance

Hardin, J. W.  1974.  Studies of the southeastern United States flora. IV. Oleaceae.  Sida 5: 274285.  

        Correll and Johnston (1970) did not include Jasminum in their treatment, only noting that species ‘sometimes persist when planted or volunteer,” nor was it included by Johnston (1990) or Hatch et al. (1990).  Hardin did not provide documentation and noted that it is “very difficult to tell from herbarium specimens which species are really naturalized and not just escaped or persistent from cultivation.” 

                                                                                                                          The following collection perhaps documents a plant outside of cultivation in Texas: Brazoria Co.: 5 mi S of Freeport, sandy loam, side of road, 19 Mar 1966, Wheeler 3 (LL, SMU). 

 

* Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.  Central Texas. 

Rarely naturalized in Texas.  See comments in Nesom (2009, in press): Taxonomic overview of  Ligustrum (Oleaceae) naturalized in the United States.  Phytologia 91(3). 

 

* Ligustrum lucidum Ait.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.  Central Texas. 

Very commonly naturalized and abundant in east and central Texas.  See comments in Nesom (2009, in press): Taxonomic overview of  Ligustrum (Oleaceae) naturalized in the United States.  Phytologia 91(3). 

 

                                                                                                                          Syringa vulgaris L. occasionally is planted in Texas but has not been observed outside of cultivation.  About 20 plants at a seemingly natural site in Wise Co., apparently not associated with an old home site, all are relatively large but there is no indication that young plants are being produced (R.J. O’Kennon, pers. comm., 2009).  Wise Co.: LBJ National Grasslands, Unit 7, sandy loam, 28 Mar 2003, O’Kennon & McLemore 17840 (BRIT). 

 

ONOGRACEAE

* Ludwigia erecta (L.) H. Hara  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

 

* Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet subsp. grandiflora

        SYN= Ludwigia uruguayensis (Cambess.) Hara

Nesom & Kartesz (2000, see next entry) noted that “We have studied seven TEX-LL collections from east Texas (Chambers, Harris, Houston, Jefferson, Kendall, Matagorda, Orange, Travis, and Wood counties) that appear to be intermediate between Ludwigia hexapetala and L. grandiflora.  these plants have densely villous stems and mature sepals 10–11 mm long, like L. grandiflora, but leaves leaves 11–18 mm wide, like L. hexapetala.  More typical L. grandiflora in Texas apparently is restricted to the southeastern corner of the state (Harris, Jefferson, and Orange counties –– specimens in TEX,LL and NCU). 

 

* Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz

        SYN= Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, Gu & Raven

Nesom, G.L. and J.T. Kartesz.  2000.  Observations on the Ludwigia uruguayensis complex (Onagraceae) in the United States.  Castanea 65:123–125.  ABSTRACT: Ludwigia uruguayensis is known to comprise a decaploid entity (L. hexapetala) and a hexaploid one (L. grandiflora, including the type of L. uruguayensis), but the two chromosomal races differ only by quantitative, intergrading morphological features, a large portion of their genome is hypothesized to be shared, and they are known to produce hybrids of intermediate morphology in regions of sympatry.  Ludwigia hexapetala is the more common, but both occur in the southeastern United States.  We agree in general with earlier studies regarding the nature of the distinction between the two entities but suggest that a more reasonable treatment of them would be as subspecies within a single species: L. grandiflora subsp. grandiflora and L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala, comb. et stat. nov.” 

Also see:

Okada, M., B. Grewell, and M. Jasieniuk.  2009.  Clonal spread of invasive Ludwigia hexapetala and L. grandiflora in freshwater wetlands of California. 

<http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=230606>

 

* Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of “1988.  Syst. Bot. Monogr.” but the reference is as below.  

Ramamoorthy, T.P. and E.M. Zardini.  1987.  The systematics and evolution of Ludwigia sect. Myrtocarpus sensu lato (Onagraceae).  Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 1–120.

Texas voucher cited:  Terrell Co.: 7 mi upstream from jct of Independence Creek and Pecos River, Webster (LIL).  The species is common in Florida and also known from few and scattered localities in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Texas. 

 

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

* Ophioglossum polyphyllum A. Br.   Old World adder’s-tongue

Zech, J.C., P.R. Manning, and W.H. Wagner, Jr.  1998.  A new adder’s-tongue (Ophioglossum: Ophioglossaceae) for North America.  Sida 18: 307–313. 

Brewster, Jeff Davis, Presidio cos.  Arizona and several states of Mexico.  “This species has an enormous range: Africa, Asia (e.g., S. China, India), Polynesia (e.g. Hawaii), and now North America.  It is probably made up of a number of subspecies, but these are held together by a set of distinctive characters.”   Regarded here as native to Texas. 

 

ORCHIDACEAE

* Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schlechter

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Montgomery Co., in yard in Kingwood, apparently first observed in 1988, increasing in number in 1989; winter-flowering

Add Brazos, Harris cos., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009

 

OROBANCHACEAE

* Orobanche minor Sm.

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Harris Co.

 

* Orobanche ramosa L.

White, H. L. J. Sammon, J. Singhurst & W.C. Holmes.  1998 [2000].  Notes on the distribution of Orobanche ramosa and O. uniflora (Orobanchaceae) in Texas.  Phytologia 85: 121–124.  Chandler, J.M, J. Underwood, and R.E. Eplee.  1990.  Eradication status of Orobanche ramosa L. in Texas.  Proc. Weed Sci. Soc. Amer. 30: 39.

Karnes Co.; as first reported for Texas by Johnston (1990, List updating the Manual).  Freestone Co., Limestone Co., and Walker Co. added by White et al.; add “everywhere” (common and abundant), fide M. Reed, Jan 2009; Turner et al. (2003) show 23 counties

 

PAPAVERACEAE

* Eschscholzia californica Cham.  %

Hatch et al. (1990); mapped by Turner et al. in Brazos and Tarrant cos.   Native to the California region but clearly not to Texas. 

 

* Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J.H. Rudolph 

Kirkpatrick, Z. and J.K. Williams.  1998.  Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) in Texas.  Sida 18: 347–349.  

Garza, Kerr, San Saba, Travis cos.

 

PARKERIACEAE

* Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn.

Lemke, D.E.  1994.  New collection records for the aquatic macrophytes Ceratopteris thalictroides (Parkeriaceae) and Limnophila sessiliflora (Scrophulariaceae) in Texas.  Sida 16: 379–381.

Hays Co. upper San Marcos River.  A free-floating homosporous fern, previously reported in Hays Co. in 1967 and 1969.  

 

PEDALIACEAE

* Sesamum orientale L.  %

Manning, S.D.  1991.  The genera of Pedaliaceae in the southeastern United States.  J. Arnold Arb., Suppl. Ser. 1: 313–347. 

Sesamum orientale, sesame, has become naturalized in scattered locations from plants under cultivation, including coastal and other places from at least South Carolina to Texas (the largest number of herbarium specimens from Florida).”  The PLANTS Database notes that a voucher is at TEX, but no collection of Sesamum shows on the Flora of Texas Database (TEX-LL Herbarium website).

PINACEAE

* Pinus elliottii Engelm.

Slash pine has been planted by the USFS in various places, at least in Sam Houston National Forest (Walker Co., Nesom pers. observ.), and the species has spread in some cases, though apparently not for long distances.  It is native to the southeastern USA, barely reaching eastern Louisiana –– it is included here among the Texas non-natives. 

 

PIPERACEAE

* Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

Hatch, S.L. and C.A. Clark. 1977.  New plant distribution and extension records for Texas and the United States.  Southw. Nat. 22: 139–140. 

Harris Co.

 

PLANTAGINACEAE

* Plantago coronopus L.

O'Kennon, R.J., G.M. Diggs, Jr., and R.K. Hoggard.  1998.  Plantago coronopus (Plantaginaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 18: 356–358. 

Tarrant Co.

 

PLUMBAGINACEAE

* Plumbago scandens L.

Lott, E.J. and M.L. Butterwick.  1980.  Notes on the flora of the Chinati Mountains, Presidio County, Texas.  Sida 8: 348–351.

Presidio Co.; long extension of range from Cameron and Hidalgo cos.  Known also from Pima Co., southern Arizona, and from northern Mexico and southern Florida, species species is widespread in the tropical Americas.  Regarded here as native to Texas. 

 

POACEAE

* Aira caryophyllea L.

Brown L.E. and C.E. Peterson.  1984.  Carex rosea (Cyperaceae), Trifolium lappaceum (Fabaceae), and Aira caryophyllacea (Poaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 10: 263–264. 

San Jacinto Co., Little Thicket Nature Sanctuary.

Add Brazos, Leon, and Madison cos., fide M. Reed Jan 2009

 

* Alopecurus geniculatus L.  %

Hulten, E. and M. Fries.  1986.  Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer (as cited by the PLANTS Database).   

 

* Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed.   Vouchers TAES.

 

* Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino

Brown, L.E. and J. Schultz.  1991.  Arthraxon hispidus (Poaceae), new to Texas.  Phytologia 71: 379–381. 

Cass Co.

 

* Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake   %
    SYN= Andropogon caucasicus Trin.
    SYN= Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Bouteloua curtipendula var. tenuis Gould & Kapadia

Hatch, S.L., M.A. Tomas, and S.R. Archer.  2009.  Bouteloua curtipendula var. tenuis (Poaceae: Cynodonteae), new to Texas and the United States and a key to B. curtipendula varieties.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 965–967. 

Sutton Co., at the TAES Experiment Station in Sonora. 

“It is likely that var. tenuis in Texas established from seed dispersed by livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep, or goats) from populations in northern Mexico.” 

 

* Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Griseb. 

Fox, W.E. III, S.L. Hatch, and R.Q. Landers, Jr.  1996.  Brachiaria eruciformis and Urochloa brizantha (Poaceae: Paniceae) new to Texas.  Sida 17: 287–288. 

McCulloch Co.

 

* Bromus sterilis L.

Warren, S.D. and S.L. Hatch.  1984.  Bromus sterilis L. (Poaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 10: 257–258.

Kerr Co. 

 

* Cenchrus setiger Vahl

1963. Iowa State Journal of Science.  TEX vouchers (as Pennisetum ciliare var.  setigerum) for Brazos and Kleberg cos. clearly indicate these collections were cultivated plants made from “nurseries.”  Excluded from the Texas flora.  SYN= Pennisetum ciliare var. setigerum (Vahl) Leeke 

 

* Coix lacryma-jobi L.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped.

DeWitt, Nacogdoches cos.

 

* Cortaderia jubata (Lem.) Stapf

Apparently a misidentification of Cortaderia selloana (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Aschers. & Graebn., as mapped by Turner et al. (2003) in 5 counties: Bexas, Brazos, Hays, Harris, Hidalgo. 

 

* Cynodon magennisii Hurcombe   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed.  No other records or documentation found. 

 

* Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

Jones, S.D. and G.D. Jones.  1992.  Cynodon nlemfuensis (Poaceae: Chlorideae), previously unreported in texas.  Phytologia 72: 93–95. 

Kenedy Co.; “frequently observed for ca. 5 miles south and north along US 77 from the collection site.” 

 

* Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed.  No other records or documentation found. 

 

* Cynosurus echinatus L.

Thomas, R.D.  2003.  Cynosurus echinatus (Poaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 20: 837. 

Walker Co.  Not relocated (by Nesom) several years later in a search at the same site. 

 

* Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Digitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv.   

PLANTS Database cites “North American Flora” as the basis for the attribution of this species to Texas.  No other records or documentation exists.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

Echinochloa paludigena Wiegand

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped. 

Cameron, San Patricio cos.

Comments from Bruce Sorrie (7 May 2009): I think it does not occur in TX.  I got into it while preparing my coastal plain endemics list.  It was one of a handful of species that occurs disjunctly in FL and TX and nowhere else.  However, I examined 2 specimens at US from Cameron County that proved to be E. crus-galliHotchkiss 4846 and Silveus 2702. The latter was annotated by Ali & Gould in 1967 as E. paludigena.  But, neither specimen has stamens within the sterile lemma, whereas stamens are easy to see, and purple, in true paludigena. Also, paludigena culms are erect, not rooting at nodes.  I can only vouch for these two specimens, but I doubt any TX records are valid paludigena.”  The species is tentatively ranked as F4 until its nativity can be resolved. 

 

* Ehrharta calycina Sm.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped;

Falls Co., voucher TAES.

 

* Elymus hispidus (P. Opiz) Meldris  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Elymus ponticus (Podp.) Meldris  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Elymus repens (L.) Gould  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Eragrostis airoides Nees   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.


* Eragrostis superba Peyr.  

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Eustachys caribaea (Spreng.) Herter 

Wipff, J.K. and S.L. Hatch.  1992.  Eustachys caribaea (Poaceae: Chlorideae) in Texas.  Sida 15: 160–162.

Brazos, Caldwell, Gonzales, Jackson cos.

 

* Euchstachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees

PLANTS Database cites Johnston (1990) as the attribution of this species to Texas, but there is no mention of  Eustachys distichophylla in that publication.  Excluded from the Texas flora.

 

* Glyceria declinata Brébiss

Newton Co., in Caney Creek Park.  No information given regarding habitat or abundance at the introduction site.

Allen, C.M. and P. and D.P Lewis.  2009.  Glyceria declinata (Poaceae) new to the flora of Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 393–394.

 

* Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter  %

Hatch et al. (1990); Turner et al. (2003), as mapped

Galveston, Harris cos. 

 

* Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.  (tanglehead)

Whether or not it is considered invasive, tanglehead apparently can be regarded as a native species.  The comments below are from Chris Best, State Botanist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin.  26 June 2009. 

 

“Having worked to restore native vegetation in south Texas for 16 years (at Lower Rio Grande Valley NWR), I am quite encouraged to hear about this spontaneous increase of Heteropogon contortus in Duval County.  There is no group of plants and no vegetation type in the Tamaulipan ecosystem as seriously depleted as are the native grasses and grassland/savanna.

“I always considered Heteropogon to be native to the region, because we found it only in the best-conserved sites.  There are some nice stands in the Loreto sand plain of Tamaulipas, for example.  If I read Mr. Smith's email correctly, he states that it is increasing in ungrazed pasture.  This is consistent with my understanding that Heteropogon is palatable to grazing animals, although the barbed florets can be quite annoying, once the grass sets seed, to any creature that wears socks or has skin.  We did have a small colony of Heteropogon appear spontaneously in a trial grassland restoration site, on land near La Sal del Rey that had been in row crops for at least 50 years.  I believe the seeds snuck into some little bluestem seeds that we had hand collected from the Hunke Ranch, in northeastern Hidalgo County.

Many of us who are familiar with the Tamaulipan vegetation were quite surprised to see the treatment in the Poaceae section of the Flora of North America, which states that Heteropogon contortus is introduced in North America.  I believe this is based on the earliest herbarium records having been collected more than 200 years ago in India.  However, Heteropogon contortus is a pantropical grass, and has no doubt hitched a ride – thanks to the tenacious florets – on every passing creature with hide or feathers, including mastodons, archeopterix and so on.

I consider this matter resolved by the discovery of Tom VanDevender, at the Desert Museum in Tucson, of Heteropogon in pack rat middens in the southwestern US dated to 11,000 years of age.  This predates the flurry of invasive grass introductions sponsored by USDA by about 10,950 years.  Therefore, regardless of what you think of tanglehead, it should be considered a true native of subtropical North America.”

[email from Chris Best to Guy Nesom, 3 Nov 2009
Yesterday I drove from Zapata to Austin, I was quite surprised to see how abundant Heteropogon was in calcareous sands over the Goliad formation.  ...  I wonder if what we are seeing in Heteropogon could be akin to the Phragmites situation, where Old World ecotypes have contributed to our native genotype and led to invasiveness (considering that Heteropogon is pantropical).”

* Holcus lanatus L.

Lipscomb, B.  1978.  Additions to the Texas flora.  Sida 7: 392–394.  

Harrison Co., Caddo Lake State Park

Add Robertson Co., fide M. Reed, Jan 2009

 

* Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

PLANTS Database: “Department of Biology Herbarium (TAMU) and Tracy Herbarium (TAES) specimen data.”  Brazos Co. 

Murphrey, M., R.F. Billings, H. Pase, and A. Dozic.  2009.  Update on cogongrass infestation in Tyler County, Texas.  Abstract, Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Conference.  Murphrey et al. (2009) note that an area of this species (cogongrass) was established on private lands in Tyler County in the 1950s and has subsequently become invasive there.   

Imperata brevifolia is a native species.  Powell (1994. Grasses of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas). 

 

* Ixophorus unisetus (J. Presl) Schltdl.  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped;

Kleberg Co., voucher TAES

 

* Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench

Johnston (1990), as listed. 

Bexar Co. (TEX voucher).  

 

* Lolium rigidum Gaudin  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery  (1997, Checklist), as listed.  

 

* Luziola peruviana Juss. ex J. F. Gmel.  

Hatch, S.L., D.J. Rosen, and J.A. Thomas.  1998.  Luziola peruviana (Poaceae: Oryzeae) previously unreported from Texas and a key to Texas species.  Sida 18: 611–614. 

Jefferson Co.

 

* Microchloa kunthii Desv.   

Powell, A.M.  1994.  Grasses of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas.

Jeff Davis Co. 

 

* Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus

Nixon, E.S. and S.C. Damuth.  1987.  Five additions to the Texas flora.  Sida 12: 421–423.

Bowie Co., moist wooded hillside above Tanyard Creek 

 

* Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) Coss. & Dur. 

Coffey, C.R. and J. Valdes.  1986.  Monerma cylindrica (Poaceae: Monermeae) new to Texas.  Sida 11: 352–353.

Galveston Co., canal banks near Bacliff

 

* Panicum repens L.

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

Vouchers at TAES and TEX for Chambers, Galveston, Jefferson, Montgomery, and Trinity cos. 

 

Abstract (Texas Invasive Species Conference, 2005): TORPEDOGRASS THREATENS MARSH HABITATS. Dian Smith, Lewisville Aquatic Ecosystem Research Facility, Lewisville, TX.

http://www.texasinvasives.org/conference/abstract_detail.php?abstract_id=36 

“Torpedograss (Panicum repens) is an Old World terrestrial grass that has spread throughout tropical and subtropical zones from 35ºS to 43ºN and grows well in wet pasture and wetland environments.  For this reason, torpedograss was intentionally introduced into the U.S. [Florida] during the 1920s to provide forage for cattle grazing in wet pastures.”

 

* Paspalum hydrophilum Henr.   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Paspalum notatum Flueggé  %

Paspalum notatum var. notatum and var. saurae Parodi were recorded for Texas fide Gould (1975, The Grasses of Texas).  Var. latiflorum J. Döll was listed by Jones et al. (1997, Checklist)

 

* Paspalum scrobiculatum L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link

“South Texas was naturally a grassland, but it is now a guinea/buffle grass savanna with expanded pioneer mesquite communities (with guinea/buffle understories).  Invasive grasses are also a primary reason for the disappearance of roadside ‘wildflowers” (Andy McDonald, Oct 2009).  Buffelgrass is a fire prone and shrubby grass introduced [to the Sonoran Desert] from the African savannah. Buffelgrass grows in dense stands that can crowd out native plants, and creates a fire regime in the desert that never existed before. This potentially leads to devastating fires that can convert the ecologically rich Sonoran desert into a more monotypic exotic grassland environment” (http://www.buffelgrass.org/). 

 

* Phalaris aquatica L.

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

Vouchers at TEX from Collin Co. and Travis Co. are all explicitly from cultivated plants.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Phalaris arundinacea L.

Hatch, S.L., D.A. Kruse, and J. Pluhar.  2004.  Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae: Aveneae), a species new to Texas and a key to Phalaris in Texas.  Sida 21: 487–491. 

Hemphill Co.

 

* Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel

From Grass Manual on the Web <http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/>:

“Phragmites australis subsp. americanus Saltonstall et al. is native to North America.  It grows across much of Canada and, in the United States, from New England and the mid-Atlantic states across to the Pacific coast and into the southwest.”  Not reaching as far south as Texas.  

 

“Phragmites australis subsp. berlandieri (E. Fourn.) Saltonstall & Hauber is the strain that grows from the Atlantic coast of Florida, around the Gulf of Mexico, southwestern Arizona, northern Mexico, and south into Central and South America. it is not clear whether it is native or introduced.  Some taxonomists treat it as P. karka, which was described from India.”  In Texas only (or primarily) in coastal localities.  

 

“Phragmites australis (Invasive). The appropriate name for these plants is not clear although they probably originated in Europe.  The name Pragmites autralis, and hence the name Phragmites australis subsp. australis, is based on plants collected from what is now Sydney, Autralia.  Unfortunately, there has been no study of plants from Australia, nor of plants from Europe, so it is not clear what name to use for the European plants.  Nevertheless because of the importance from a management point of view of being able to distinguish the invasive strain from the native strains, names have been treated for the strains in North America that are not invasive.”  Not specifically mapped for Texas by Saltonstall (2002) but spreading rapidly in the USA in inland localities and likely to be the expression of the species now common in much of Texas.  It is now the most common expression over all of North America. 

 

For additional information, see the Invasive Plants Network site and their page for distinguishing the invasive strain” (Native and introduced Phragmites)

 

Also see

Saltonstall, K.  2002.  Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of Phragmites australis into North America.   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99(4): 2445-2449.   [PDF]   

 

        Jackie Poole (pers. comm., 27 July 2008) notes that “The oldest collections at TEX-LL were 1931 (Trans-Pecos), 1934 (High Plains), and 1919 (coastal).  Phragmites in the western half of the state is pushed out by Arundo donax.  I'd hate to add to its troubles by encouraging people to eradicate it.” 

 

In sum, Phragmites in Texas includes a mixture of native and non-native populations -- land managers and conservationists should be aware of this.  In order not to encourage eradication of what might be native populations, P. australis is not included in the list of Texas non-native species. 

 

* Phyllostachys aurea Riv.

Borowski, M., W.C. Holmes, & J. Singhurst.  1996.  Phyllostachys aurea (Gramineae: Bambuseae) in Texas.  Phytologia 80: 30–34.

Documented here for 41 counties in the eastern half of the state––noted to be naturalized and spreading. 

The plants mapped as Phyllostachys nigra by Turner et al. (2003) apparently are mistakenly identified -- collections of P. aurea from 12 Texas counties are deposited at TEX; the only collection of P. nigra is explicity from cultivation. 

 

* Poa bulbosa L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Poa trivialis L.  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed.

 

* Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed.

 

* Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton

Wipff, J.K. and B.S. Rector.  1993.  Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Poaceae: Andropogoneae) new to Texas.  Sida 15: 419–424.  Jefferson Co. 

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Harris, Matagorda, Wharton cos.

 

* Saccharum officinarum L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Saccharum ravennae L.

Singhurst, J.R., J.N. Mink and W.S. Holmes.  2010.  New and noteworthy plants of Texas.  Phytologia 92: 249–255.

Hemphill, Wheeler cos. 

Documented by collections by Singhurst in 2009 from along the Canadian River and North Fork Red River. 

 

* Setaria magna Griseb.

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed; Turner et al. (2003), as mapped for Brazoria, Chambers, Galveston, Jefferson, and Tarrant cos. 

Vouchers at TEX for Brazoria, Galveston, and Jefferson cos.

        “Setaria magna grows in saline marshes along the eastern coast of the United States.  There are also disjunct populations in brackish swamps in Arkansas, and in Texas and southeastern New Mexico as well as in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Mexico, and Costa Rica.  It may have been recently introduced to some of these regions, including inland areas of the [FNA] Flora region.”  Manual of Grasses for North America <http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/>   Tentatively regarded here as native in Texas.

 

* Sorghum almum Parodi  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

Two vouchers at TEX (Kleberg Co.) are explicity from cultivated plants. 

 

* Spartina bakeri Merr.

“At GH I found specimens from Jefferson County TX and Cameron Parish LA that appear to be natural.  TX: along bayou near Neches River bridge on coastal highway, northeast of Port Arthur, 26 Sept 1969, Gould 12910 (GH).   LA: Cameron in Cameron Parish, 5 July 1903, Tracy 8366 (GH).  Gould also collected it from Orange Co TX, specimens apparently at Tracy herbarium.  This cluster of records is disjunct from the Florida Panhandle.  Someone needs to look to see if S. bakeri is naturalized or native and merely overlooked” (Bruce Sorrie, 7 May 2009).   Regarded here as native to Texas. 

* Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze

Hatch et al. (1990). 

TEX vouchers: Cameron, Colorado, Edwards, Galveston, Harris, Nueces, Terrell, and Travis cos. (plus others, where clearly cultivated or persisting).

 

* Themeda triandra Forssk.

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped. 

Travis Co. (Wendt 6988, TEX).  First record for Texas and for the USA. 

 

* Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dewey  %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Liu & Wang   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Thinopyrum pycnanthum (Godr.) Barkworth   %

Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery (1997), as listed. 

 

* Triraphis mollis R. Br.

Hatch, S.L., W.E. Fox, and J.E. Dawson.  1998.  Triraphis mollis (Poaceae: Arundineae), a species reported new to the United States.  Sida 18: 365-367. 

Dimmit Co., collected along sandy roadsides in March and May, 1993.    

 

* Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich.) R. Webster 

Fox, W.E. III, S.L. Hatch, and R.Q. Landers, Jr.  1996.  Brachiaria eruciformis and Urochloa brizantha (Poaceae: Paniceae) new to Texas.  Sida 17: 287–288. 

Runnels Co.

 

* Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. Webster   %     Guinea Grass

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 “South Texas was naturally a grassland, but it is now a guinea/buffle grass savanna with expanded pioneer mesquite communities (with guinea/buffle understories).  Invasive grasses are also a primary reason for the disappearance of roadside ‘wildflowers” (Andy McDonald, Oct 2009).  Guinea Grass is native of Africa ––  introduced to almost all tropical countries as a source of animal fodder.  Its seeds are still sold commercially today for this purpose. 

 

* Urochloa mosambicensis (Hackel) Dandy  

Wipff, J.K., R.I. Lonard, S.D. Jones, and S.L. Hatch.  1993.  The genus Urochloa (Poaceae: Paniceae) in Texas, including one previously unreported species for the state.  Sida 15: 405–413.

Jim Wells Co.

 

* Urochloa panicoides Beauv.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.


* Urochloa plantaginea (Link) R. Webster   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Urochloa ramosa (L.) Webster

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Chambers Co.

 

* Urochloa subquadripara (Trin.) R.D. Webster

Hatch, S.L.  2010.  Urochloa subquadripara (Poaceae: Paniceae) new to Texas and a key to Urochloa of Texas.  Phytoneuron 2010-8: 1-4.  

Hidalgo Co.  In lawns.  A key to separate the 13 species of Urochloa in Texas is presented along with an image of U. subquadripara.

 

* Zea mays L.  %

 

 

* Zea perennis (Hitchc.) Reeves & Manglesdorf  %

Turner et al. (2003), as mapped;

Brazoria Co., voucher TAES

 

POLYGONACEAE

* Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.

Correll, D.S. 1966.  Some additions and corrections to the flora of Texas––III.  Rhodora 68: 420–428. 

Kleberg Co., sandy loam of old school ground in Riviera. 

 

* Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  (= Polygonum fagopyrum L. )

O’Kennon, R.J., C. McLemore, and A.K. Neill.  2003.  Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae), new for Texas.  Sida 20: 1717–1720. 

Wise Co.

 

* Polygonum cespitosum Blume

First reported by Carr and Hernandez (1993) from Jasper Co.; additional reports here from Liberty Co. and Galveston Co.  Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

 

* Polygonum caespitosum Blume var. longisetum (DeBruyn) Stewart

Carr, W.R. and D.R. Hernandez.  1993.  Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum (Polygonaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 15: 656.    

Jasper Co.

 

* Polygonum lacerum Kunth

Small, J.K.  1892.  A preliminary list of American species of Polygonum.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 331–337. 

Small cited specimens of P. lacerum from Peru and Bolivia -- and one from Texas: “Western Texas, Maronillas Creek, Havard 112.”  “Havard’s 112 from Western Texas also belongs here, as as interesting as this may be, it is not surprising, for, as the flora of the Andes of South America is gradually brought to light, the relation between it and that of the southwestern United States is more clearly seen” (p. 363).  The species has not subsequently been included in any accounts of the North American flora.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Polygonum meisnerianum var. beyrichianum (Cham. & Schlecht.) Meisn.

Noted by Correll and Johnston (1970) to occur in Texas but without documention.  Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Orange Co., in a slight swale under a canopy of Chinese tallow trees adjacent to a fallow rice field near Nederland. 

 

* Polygonum scandens L.  %

Correll & Johnston (1970) noted that it “has been reported to occur in Texas (Wheeler Co.) but we have seen no specimens.  Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.   Native to North America. 

 

* Rumex obtusifolius L.

Correll, D.S. and H.B. Correll 1972.  Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southwestern United States.  Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 

Castro, Randall, Hale cos.

 

* Rumex paraguayensis Parodi

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Chambers Co.

 

PORTULACACEAE

* Portulaca grandiflora Hook.

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of Matthews et al (1994), who apparently referred to cultivated plants.  “This is the most widely cultivated species in the genus.     In subsequent analysis of the species throughout the United States (California, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin), the seed surface was found to vary, primarily by the presence or absence and distribution of tubercles” (p. 336).  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

Matthews, J.F., D.W. Ketron, and S.F. Zane.  1994.  The seed surface morphology and cytology of six species of Portulaca (Portulacaceae).  Castanea 59: 331–337. 

 

PSILOTACEAE

* Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. 

Included in the Texas flora by Correll & Johnston (1970) but ambiguously regarded as a member of the native flora.  Here treated as native to tropical areas of Old World and New World, adventive in Texas.  Records from Louisiana and Arkansas also apparently are adventive. 

Peck, J.H., J.R. Bray, D.L. Marsh, D.W. McMasters, C. Amason, and W.D. Crank.  1995.  Psilotum nudum new to Arkansas.  Amer. Fern J. 85: 95–96.  Rhodes, D.G.  1970.  Psilotum nudum (Psilotaceae) in north Louisiana. Sida 3: 525.

Mapped by Turner et al. (2003) in Freestone Co., Hardin Co.

 

PTERIDACEAE

* Cheilanthes notholaenoides (Desv.) Maxon ex Weath.  %

Lellinger, D.B.  1985.  A field manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the U.S. and Canada. 

 

* Pteris vittata L.

Stanford , J.W. and G.M. Diggs, Jr.  1998.  Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae), a new fern for Texas.  Sida 18: 359–360. 

San Saba Co.

 

RANUNCULACEAE

* Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) Schroedinger  %

Ewan, J.  1945.  A synopsis of North American species of Delphinium.  Univ. Colorado Studies, Ser. D 2(2): 1–55.

Hatch et al. (1990)

 

* Ranunculus ficaria L.  

Nesom, G.L.  2008.  Ranunculus ficaria (Ranunculaceae) naturalized in Texas.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2(1): 741–742.

Tarrant Co.; spreading along banks of Overton Creek in Fort Worth.  Probably var. bulbifera, produces axillary bulbils and has infertile achenes. 

 

* Ranunculus marginatus d’Urv. 

Brown, L.E.  1986.  Thaspium trifoliatum (Apiaceae) and Ranunculus marginatus (Ranunculaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 11: 488.

Harris Co., weedy area in the Armand Bayou Nature Center   

 

* Ranunculus trilobus Desf.

Keener, C.S.  1979.  New state records for Ranunculaceae in the southeastern United States.  Sida 8: 114. 

Harrison Co., field off Interstate 20 at Waskom. 

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Brazoria Co. 

Mapped by Turner et al (2003) in Harrison Co. 

 

RHAMNACEAE

* Hovenia dulcis Thunb. 

Goldman, D.H.  1998.  Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae) naturalized in central Texas.  Sida 18: 350–352.  Travis Co.  Known as naturalized in Texas only from several trees about 40 feet tall, growing along the base of a northwest-facing limestone cliff in Austin.  They probably are the progeny of trees originally cultivated in a nearby University of Texas College of Pharmacy Drug Garden, defunct since the mid 1940’s.  No seedlings have been observed in the area. 

 

* Paliurus spina-christi Miller  

O’Kennon, R.J.  1991.  Paliurus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) new for North America in Texas.  Sida 14: 606–609. 

Gillespie Co.  Naturalized in thicket-forming populations for about 25 kilometers along the flood plains of the Pedernales River and two tributaries.  It apparently spread from hedgerow plantings in the late 1880’s along one of the tributaries.

  

* Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnston

Included in some accounts as naturalized in Texas. The species was noted by Brown and Gandhi (1989) as “forming hedges between highways and adjacent fields near Alvin [Brazoria, Co.]. Lynn Lowrey (personal communication 1989) claims that the state highway department at one time planted pauper’s tea along some highways.”  It does appear probable that these plants are persistent from plantings, especially as no other observations of the species in Texas have been made since, and there is no evidence that the species is naturalized. 

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

 

ROSACEAE

* Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm.  

Nesom, G.L.  2008.  Photinia serratifolia (Rosaceae) naturalized in Texas.  Phytologia 90: 375–377.

Tarrant, Parker, Travis cos.  Open woods, thickets, disturbed sites, and creek beds and creek banks.

 

* Pyracantha coccinea M.J. Roem.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ. (“Texas”); mapped by Turner et al. (2003) for 15 counties.  Not documented for Texas by Nesom (2009).  Naturalized plants are P. koidzumii (mostly) and P. fortuneana. 

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Pyracantha (Rosaceae) naturalized in Texas and the southeastern United States.  Phytoneuron-2: 1–6.  

 

* Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H.L. Li

Nesom (2010).  Wood Co.

 

* Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder

Nesom (2010).  Bandera, Blanco, Comal, Coryell, Galveston, and Travis cos. 

 

* Pyrus calleryana Decne.

Lowrey pers. comm. 1985 (in M.C. Johnston 1990).

Harris Co., along roads near Houston

This species is becoming widely naturalized in Texas and spreads abundantly into natural habitats. 

 

Vincent, Michael A.  2005.  On the spread and current distribution of Pyrus calleryana in the United States.  Castanea 70:20-31. 

ABSTRACT:  Pyrus calleryana, a very commonly planted ornamental tree species, is documented as an escape from cultivation in the District of Columbia and 152 counties or parishes in 25 states, and is reported as new to California, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, and West Virginia.  Evidence is presented that the species is rapidly becoming invasive in much of its horticultural range in at least the eastern United States.  Some of the escaped individuals (from 14 counties or parishes in 11 states) appear to be of hybrid origin, perhaps between callery pear and P. betulifolia or P. bretschneideri.  Callery pear often produces thorny thickets as it escapes into marginal and disturbed areas, and appears to be reproducing readily in the wild.  "An ill weed groweth fast." -- John Heywood, Proverbs (1546) 

"Pyrus calleryana escapes frequently in areas where it has been in cultivation for about 10 years or longer, judging by the sizes of cultivated trees in the areas where escapes were observed.  In places where it is cultivated, it escapes freely as its seeds are spread by birds and is found in disturbed areas such as fence rows, fallow fields, weedy ground, and disturbed woodlots.  It often forms dense thickets, and these are often thorny, since thornless cultivars appear to retain genes for thorniness that may be expressed as genes recombine in their progeny" (Vincent 2005, p. 25).

 

* Prunus domestica L.

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

Presidio Co., in ZH Canyon of the Sierra Vieja.

 

* Rosa micrantha Sm.   %

Treated by Correll & Johnston (1970); “A Eur.-Medit. species that occasionally escapes from cult.”  No vouchers at TEX. 

 

* Rosa tomentosa Sm.  %

Treated by Correll & Johnston (1970); “A Eur. species that occasionally escapes from cult.”  No vouchers have been located at TEX. 

 

RUBIACEAE

* Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.

McGregor, R.L. and R.E. Brooks 1983.  Vascular flora of Kansas: new records and notes for 1982.  Tech. Bull. State Biol. Surv. Kans. 13: 1–8. 

Mapped by McGregor et al. in northwestern Texas, as Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.

 

* Galium anglicum Huds. 

Lipscomb, B.L. and G.L. Nesom.  2007.  Galium parisiense (Rubiaceae) new for Texas, and notes on the taxonomy of the G. parisiense/divaricatum complex.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1269–1276. 

Gillespie Co.

 

* Paederia foetida L.

Brown, L.E.  1992.  Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) and Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae) adventive in Texas.  Phytologia 72: 45–47. 

Harris Co.; vine climbing into trees. 

 

RUTACEAE

* Citrus aurantiaca L.  %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ.

 “Volunteering in southern and coastal Texas.”

 

* Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

SALVINIACEAE

* Salvinia minima Baker

Hatch, S.L.  1995.  Salvinia minima (Salviniaceae), new to Texas.  Sida 16: 595. 

Jefferson Co.

 

* Salvinia molesta Mitchell 

Jacono, C.C.  1999.  Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae), new to Texas and Louisiana.  Sida 18: 927–928. 

Harris Co., Sabine Co.

 

SAPINDACEAE

* Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk.

Invaders of Texas Database.  2009.  Joe Marcus, observations and photo 25 Mar 2007.  <http://www.texasinvasives.org/observations/search.php?satellite=&sn=CUAN4&cn=>

Cameron Co., SE of Brownsville, “on Southmost Preserve, Nature Conservancy, next to north parking lot.” 

 

* Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A.C. Smith

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of Brizicky (1963).  Brizicky noted that “K. formosana Hayata, 2n = 22 is grown in the warmer areas of the southern United States,” but neither Texas nor any other state was specifically noted in a range statement.  It has not been reported elsewhere as naturalized in Texas.  Excluded from the Texas flora.   Synonyms: Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A.C. Smith subsp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey.; K. formosana Hayata.

Brizicky, G.K..  1963.  The genera of Sapindales in the southeastern United States.  J. Arnold Arb. 44: 462–501. 

Also attributed to Texas (fide PLANTS Database) by the Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group web site, but that web site no longer available.  

 

* Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

SCROPHULARIACEAE

* Bacopa repens (Sw.) Wettst.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Waller Co., in water of private commercial rice field between Katy and Brookshire

 

* Bellardia trixago (L.) All. 

Lipscomb, B. and G. Ajilsvgi. 1982.  Bellardia trixago (L.) All. (Scrophulariaceae) adventive in Texas.  Sida 9: 370–374. 

Navarro Co., abundant along roadsides and in open fields and pastures 

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Harris Co., roadside of Interstate 10 between Houston and Katy

Do, L.H., W.C. Holmes, and J.R. Singhurst.  1996.  New county records for Bellardia trixago (Scrophulariaceae) in Texas.  Sida 17: 295–297. 

New county records, distribution map

 

* Chaenorrhinum minus (L.) Lange 

Diggs, G.M. Jr., C.E.S.Taylor, and R.J. Taylor.  1997.  Chaenorrhinum minus (Scrophulariaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 17: 631–632. 

Fannin, Grayson cos.

 

* Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.

B. Ertter pers. comm. (in Johnston 1990).

Near Hunt on the Edwards Plateau; Turner et al. (2003) mapped it in Gillespie, Kerr, and Uvalde counties. 

 

* Limnophila sessiliflora Bl.

Lemke, D.E.  1994.  New collection records for the aquatic macrophytes Ceratopteris thalictroides (Parkeriaceae) and Limnophila sessiliflora (Scrophulariaceae) in Texas.  Sida 16: 379–381.  Lemke, D.E.  1989.  Aquatic macrophytes of the upper San Marcos River, Hays County, Texas.  Southw. Naturalist 32: 289–291. 

Hays Co.  upper San Marcos River.  Previously reported at the site by Lemke (1989); resembling Cabomba caroliniana in gross morphology.   

 

* Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell.

Brown, L.E. and S.J. Marcus.  1998.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records.  Sida 18: 315–324. 

Liberty Co.

 

* Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steen.

Godfrey, R and J.W. Wooten. 1981.  Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. Vol. II, Dicotyledons.  Univ. of Georgia Press, Athens. 

Correct name for Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze of the Manual

Turner et al. (2003) mapped it in 9 counties, but it probably is now more widespread than that. 

 

* Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel

Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, and L.E. Brown.  1990.  Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas. MP-1655, Texas Agric. Expt. Station, Texas A&M Univ., College Station

No voucher cited; included in C&J 1970 but not in the index.  Based on a collection (LL) by Correll in 1969: Jasper Co.: 5 mi. W of Jasper along stream in pine-hardwood forest, grassy seepy slope.  Reported as new for Oklahoma by Holmes & Singhurst (Phytologia 86: 107–109. 2004).  Thanks to Walter Holmes for the update.  Turner et al. (2003) show 6 northeastern counties. 

 

* Veronica agrestis L.  %

Recorded for Texas by Hatch et al. (1990); Turner et al. (2003) noted that Veronica polita includes V. agrestis and did not map the latter separately. 

 

SOLANACEAE

* Cestrum diurnum L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Cestrum nocturnum L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Cestrum parqui L'Hér.  %
Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Lycianthes asarifolia (Kunth & Bouché) Bitter

Reed, M.D. and M. Ketchersid.  1998.  Lycianthes asarifolia (Solanaceae) new and weedy in Texas.  Sida 18: 361–362. 

Harris Co.

 

* Nicotiana longiflora Cav.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Nicotiana tabacum L.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Petunia axillaris (Lam.) B.S.P

Collections mapped as this species by Turner et al. (2003) apparently instead are P. integrifolia.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

* Petunia integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thellung  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  Mapped by Turner et al. (2003, as P. axillaris, in 6 counties). 

 

* Physalis acutifolia (Miers) Sandwith

Worthington, R.D.  1996.  Comments on plant species added to the flora of Texas from El Paso County with more additions.  Phytologia 80: 121–127. 

El Paso Co.; previously cited for Texas on the basis of the type collection by Charles Wright, but this collection actually was made in Arizona.  Collected twice in El Paso Co. – in alluvium of an arroyo and in an irrigation ditch.  A native species. 

 

* Schizanthus pinnatus Ruiz & Pavón  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Solanum capsicastrum Link 

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Harris, Colorado, Victoria

 

* Solanum capsicoides All.

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Chambers Co.  

 

* Solanum diphyllum L.   %

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

 

* Solanum erianthum D. Don

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Cameron Co. (few collections) Kenedy Co. (one collection)

 

* Solanum lycopersicum Lam var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Spooner, J. Anderson & R.K. Jansen  %
    SYN= Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef.
    SYN= Lycopersicon lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef.

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.


* Solanum lycopersicum Lam. var. lycopersicum  %
    SYN= Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill.
Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Solanum pseudocapsicum L. 

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Jasper Co., where known from several collections, the most recent from 1954.

 

* Solanum ptycanthum Dunal

Schilling, E.E.  1981.  Systematics of Solanum sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) in North America.  Syst. Bot. 6: 172–185. 

Texas; a native species

 

* Solanum sarrachoides Sendt.  

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Brewster Co.  “Known from a single collection in the Chisos Mts. of Brewster Co. (Sperry 475 [SRSC]).  This specimen was misidentified as S. villosum Mill., a tetraploid Eurasian member of sect. Solanum that, like S. sarrachoides, is glandular pubescent but lacks the enlarged, accrescent calyx.  No specimens referable to S. villosum have been seen from Texas.” 

 

* Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.  

Lemke, D.E.  1991.  The genus Solanum in Texas.  Phytologia 71: 362–378. 

Wood Co., known only by a 1927 collection

 

* Solanum viarum Dunal 

Reed, M.D., M. Ketchersid, and R.L. Thompson.  2004.  Solanum viarum (Solanaceae) —tropical soda-apple – confirmed from Texas.  Sida 21: 1171–1174. 

Jasper Co.

 

Abstract (Texas Invasive Species Conference, 2005): HOW FAILURE TO HEED THE VALUE OF RISK ASSESSMENT AND PREVENTION ALLOWED THE WEED FROM HELL TO INVADE TEXAS.  James Bergan, The Nature Conservancy of Texas, San Antonio.  “I will profile the recent establishment of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) in Texas as an example of failed prevention policy and infrastructure in Texas.  This very prolific weed was first established in Texas in 1998 but wasn’t officially detected until June 2004.” <http://www.texasinvasives.org/conference/abstract_detail.php?abstract_id=31>

 

Eric Keith (pers. comm., 1 May 2009) notes that “I’ve basically seen it in every county that I have been to in East Texas, from Orange Co. to Henderson Co., and it is invading into natural habitats.”  Apparently the spread of this species in Texas over the last 5 years has been explosive. 

 

In the Texas account of non-natives, Solanum viarum is ranked as F1, following the observations of Eric Keith that it is widespread.  Because it may be still expanding its range, hopefully incipiently, it also has been placed on the Watch List to call immediate attention it.  A useful publication is cited below:

 

Bryson, C.T. and J.D. Byrd.  2007.  Biology, reproductive potential, and winter survival of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum).  Weed Technology 21: 791–795.

 

STERCULIACEAE

* Firmiana simplex (L.) W.F. Wight  %

M.C. Johnston (1990), pers. observ. “Several localities in the coastal plain.” 

Turner et al. (2003) show 7 inland counties. 

 

TAMARICACEAE

Correll and Johnston (1970) included Tamarix africana Poir., T. aphylla (L.) Karst., T. chinensis Lour., T. gallica L., T. parviflora DC., and T. ramosissima Ledeb. 

        Gaskin and Schaal (2003) noted that “taxonomic ambiguity lies in distinguishing between species within the group T. africana, T. canariensis, and T. gallica, and within the group T. aralensis, T. ramosissima, and T. chinensis, which are differentiated by characters that may be variable within a species.  Based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence data, they concluded that “there are four invasive entities in the U.S., two of which are T. aphylla and T. parviflora.  The sequence data also identify an invasive entity consisting of genetically indistinguishable T. ramosissima and T. chinensis, and another consisting of genetically indistinguishable T. gallica and T. canariensis.  There is evidence of introgression between T. ramosissima, T. canariensis, and T. gallica, which is a likely source of confusion in the identification of some Tamarix invasions.”

        The listing here, with synonyms informally proposed, is based on the implications of the study by Gaskin and Schaal, though they did not formally relegate names to synonym.  The last sentence above appears to indicate that they accepted T. ramosissima and T. canariensis as potentially valid species. 

Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. 

Tamarix chinensis Lour. (including T. pentandra Pallas, T. ramosissima Ledeb.)  

Tamarix gallica L. (including T. canariensis Willd., T. africana Poir.) 

Tamarix parviflora DC.  

 

Gaskin, J.F. and B.A. Schaal.  2003.  Molecular phylogenetic investigation of U.S. invasive Tamarix.  Syst. Bot. 28: 86–95. 

 

THYMELAEACEAE

* Thymelaea passerina (L.) Cosson & Germain   

Holmes, W.C., J.F. Pruski, and J.R. Singhurst.  2000.  Thymelaea passerina (Thymelaeaceae) new to Texas.  Sida 19: 403–406. 

Denton, Fannin cos.

 

ULMACEAE

* Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.

Reed, M.D.  2005.  Key to the Angiosperm Flora of Brazos and Surrounding Counties.  Texas A&M Univ., College Station.  

 

URTICACEAE

* Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.

 

* Parietaria judaica L.  %

D. Boufford pers. comm. 1988 (in Johnston 1990).

Townsend, C.C.  1968.  Parietaria officinalis and P. judaica.  Watsonia 6: 365–370. 

Texas

 

* Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Harris Co., lawn weed in Houston

 

VALERIANACEAE

* Valerianella locusta (L.) Betcke

Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio.  2007.  Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III.  J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. 

Bowie Co. 

 

VERBENACEAE

Clerodendrum bungei Steud.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Duranta erecta L.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Glandularia ×hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) Nesom & Pruski   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Verbena litoralis Kunth  [deleted]

Does not occur in Texas or the USA (see Nesom 2010); listed by Hatch et al. (1990). 

 

* Verbena incompta P.W. Michael

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1–16. 

Widespread.  Plants previously identified in Texas as Verbena bonariensis are instead V. incompta. 

 

Verbena montevidensis Spreng.

Nesom, G.L.  2010.  Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA.  Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1–16. 

Brazoria Co.: between Navarre Hillhouse Rd. and Stringer Rd., S of County Rd 91, near (S of) FM 518 and W of Old Chocolate Bayou Rd., 30 Apr 1985, Cowan 5316 (TEX).  Liberty Co.: W side of Cleveland, bottoms of East San Jacinto River, by hwy bridge, 13 Aug 1956, Shinners 24414 (SMU). Limestone Co.: Fort Parker State Park, Hwy 14 and Park Rd 28, Jun 1993, disturbed area, Singhurst et al. 1748 (BRIT). Newton Co.: 23 Jul 1939, Tharp s.n. (TEX). Orange Co.: 6 mi N of Orange, shallow roadside ditch bank, 17 May 1966, Shinners 31381 (SMU).

 

* Vitex negundo L.   %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

VIOLACEAE

* Viola tricolor L. 

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed.  A voucher at TEX explicitly is from a cultivated plant.   Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

VITACEAE

* Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnepain

Brown, L.E.  1992.  Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) and Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae) adventive in Texas.  Phytologia 72: 45–47. 

Harris Co., “a rampant vine” noted to be at the site for about 37 years.  It is “climbing into the trees and shrubs and would cover them up if not periodically pulled down.”  The flowers … “seemed to be falling off rather than setting fruit.” 

 

* Vitis vinifera L.

Attributed to Texas by the PLANTS Database, based on “1990.  Phytologia” -- I cannot find the report.  Excluded from the Texas flora. 

 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

* Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Hook. & Arn.

Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi. 1989.  Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction.  Phytologia 67: 394–399.    

Austin Co. (sandy bottomland of Mill Creek), Harris Co. (parking lot in downtown Houston).  “The above two collections appear to be the first in Texas since the 1934 Lehman collection (at TEX, GH) from Washington Co. (Porter 1969).”    

 

* Tribulus cistoides L.  %

Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. 

 

* Zygophyllum fabago L.

Worthington, R.D.  1996.  Comments on plant species added to the flora of Texas from El Paso County with more additions.  Phytologia 80: 121–127. 

El Paso Co.; first documentation for occurrence in Texas.  Along Rio Grande levee road.  D.M. Porter pers. comm. (in M.C. Johnston 1990) reported probably the same plants from El Paso Co. as Z. fabago var. brachycarpum Boiss.